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Shalinee Dhayal, Francesco P Zummo, Matthew W Anderson, Patricia Thomas, Hannah J Welters, Catherine Arden and Noel G Morgan

; rapamycin, tunicamycin, bafilomycin A1 and antiserum against LC3 (L7543) were purchased from Sigma. PVDF membrane and Mini-Protean TGX gels were from Bio-Rad; stripping buffer (Re-Blot Plus-Strong) from Millipore. Antiserum against LC3 (ab58610) was

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Lei Yang, Hongzheng Meng and Maowei Yang

(NAC) (Klionsky et al. 2012) were obtained from Sigma-Aldrich. The antibodies used were as follows: LC3 (Cell Signaling Technology) and p62/SQSTM1 (Abcam). An annexin V-FITC apoptosis detection kit (BioVision) and the oxidation-sensitive fluorescent

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Penny Ahlstrom, Esther Rai, Suharto Chakma, Hee Ho Cho, Palanivel Rengasamy and Gary Sweeney

et al. 2008 , Liu et al. 2015 ). L6 cells stably expressing tandem fluorescent LC3 (TFLC3) was generated as we described before ( Liu et al. 2015 ). A stable L6 cell line overexpressing an Atg5-dominant negative mutant (Atg5K130R (Atg5K)), which

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Katarzyna Zielniok, Agnieszka Sobolewska and Małgorzata Gajewska

genes ( BECN1 , ATG3 , ATG5 , LC3B ) and their protein products. Furthermore, we examined the potential steroid-induced regulation of other cell signalling pathways responsible for autophagy induction, to verify whether E2 and P4 may regulate

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Björn Hansson, Sebastian Wasserstrom, Björn Morén, Vipul Periwal, Petter Vikman, Samuel W Cushman, Olga Göransson, Petter Storm and Karin G Stenkula

from Santa Cruz, p62, S6K1, S6K1 Thr389, AS160 Thr642, PKB, PKB Ser473, PKB Thr308, and LC3 antibodies raised against LC3A/B were from Cell Signaling Technologies. Proteasomal inhibitor MG132 was from Sigma Aldrich, fluorescence-conjugated secondary

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Lichun Zhou, Baohua Ma and Xiuzhen Han

complex (ATG12-ATG5-ATG16L1) and LC3-phosphatidyl ethanolamine (PE). LC3-II remains on mature autophagosomes until after fusion with lysosomes to generate autolysosomes, and the contents are then degraded by proteases, lipases, nucleases and glycosidase

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Qin He, Dan Mei, Sha Sha, Shanshan Fan, Lin Wang and Ming Dong

lipids, and then autophagy-related proteins were determined, including microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) and SQSTM1 (p62). Finally, 
ERK/mTOR signalling pathway was observed in order 
to reveal the potential molecular pathway underlying

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Andrea Weckman, Antonio Di Ieva, Fabio Rotondo, Luis V Syro, Leon D Ortiz, Kalman Kovacs and Michael D Cusimano

Atg12 and light chain 3 (LC3) conjugation systems ( Yang & Klionsky 2009 , Tanida 2011 ). Even this ‘core’ set is composed of several different groups within each subgroup, revealing a complex system of regulation in which each component plays a

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Jie Sun, Yan Liu, Jinhui Yu, Jin Wu, Wenting Gao, Liyuan Ran, Rujiao Jiang, Meihua Guo, Dongyu Han, Bo Liu, Ning Wang, Youwei Li, He Huang, Li Zeng, Ying Gao, Xin Li and Yingjie Wu

BAX were from Proteintech Group Inc., China. Antibodies against GLUT2, IRS1, p-IRS1, p-AMPK, ACC, p-ACC, AKT, p-AKT, mTOR, p-mTOR, 4EBP1, p-4EBP1, P70S6K, p-P70S6K, GSK3β, p-GSK3β, ATG5, ATG3, LC3, BECLIN-1 and β-ACTIN were acquired from Abcam. RIPA

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Long The Nguyen, Sonia Saad, Yi Tan, Carol Pollock and Hui Chen

electrophoresed and electroblotted onto the Hybond nitrocellulose membrane (Amersham Pharmacia Biotech), which was then incubated with a primary antibody at 4°C overnight. Antibodies against Atg12–Atg5 complex, Atg7, LC3, protein kinase B (Akt), phosphorylated Akt