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Anna Maria Di Blasio, Michele Vignali and Davide Gentilini

control of sex hormones and cytokines, mimic similar effects in female reproduction ( Karasu et al . 2011 ). In this review, we will summarise the importance of the endocannabinoid system in female reproductive organs and will point out new mechanisms

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Wei-An Lai, Yi-Ting Yeh, Wei-Ling Fang, Leang-Shin Wu, Nobuhiro Harada, Peng-Hui Wang, Ferng-Chun Ke, Wen-Ling Lee and Jiuan-Jiuan Hwang

Estrogens are essential for female reproduction and overall well-being, and estrogens in the circulation are largely synthesized in ovarian granulosa cells. Using primary cultures of ovarian granulosa cells from gonadotropin-primed immature rats, we have recently discovered that pituitary FSH and ovarian cytokine transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1) induce calcineurin-mediated dephosphorylation–activation of cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB)-regulated transcription coactivator (CRTC2) to modulate the expression of Star, Cyp11a1, and Hsd3b leading to increased production of progesterone. This study explored the role of calcineurin and CRTC2 in FSH and TGFβ1 regulation of Cyp19a1 expression in granulosa cells. Ovarian granulosa cells treated with FSH displayed increased aromatase protein at 24 h post-treatment, which subsided by 48 h, while TGFβ1 acting through its type 1 receptor augmented the action of FSH with a greater and longer effects. It is known that the ovary-specific Cyp19a1 PII-promoter contains crucial response elements for CREB and nuclear receptor NR5A subfamily liver receptor homolog 1 (LRH1/NR5A2) and steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1/NR5A1), and that the Nr5a2 promoter also has a potential CREB-binding site. Herein, we demonstrate that FSH+TGFβ1 increased LRH1 and SF1 protein levels, and their binding to the Cyp19a1 PII-promoter evidenced, determined by chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis. Moreover, pretreatment with calcineurin auto-inhibitory peptide (CNI) abolished the FSH+TGFβ1-upregulated but not FSH-upregulated aromatase activity at 48 h, and the corresponding mRNA changes in Cyp19a1, and Nr5a2 and Nr5a1 at 24 h. In addition, FSH and TGFβ1 increased CRTC2 binding to the Cyp19a1 PII-promoter and Nr5a2 promoter at 24 h, with CREB bound constitutively. In summary, the results of this study indicate that calcineurin and CRTC2 have important roles in mediating FSH and TGFβ1 collateral upregulation of Cyp19a1 expression together with its transcription regulators Nr5a2 and Nr5a1 in ovarian granulosa cells.

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Xinwang Chen, Xiao Jia, Jie Qiao, Youfei Guan and Jihong Kang

the pathogenesis of PCOS. In this review, we discuss the roles of several identified adipose-specific and some of nonadipose-specific adipokines in female reproduction that may act as links between obesity and PCOS. Other adipokines, such as TNFα, IL6

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Sylvia C Hewitt, Wipawee Winuthayanon and Kenneth S Korach

domain of ERα is crucial for female reproduction. ERα ChIP-seq analysis of the ERα AA/− uterus revealed that the DBD mutation, rather than completely disrupting DNA binding instead altered the motif specificity, so that ERα AA could bind HRE motifs

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Nadia Bellofiore, Fiona Cousins, Peter Temple-Smith, Hayley Dickinson and Jemma Evans

phenomenon is surprisingly rare, with the majority of female reproduction in mammals characterised by oestrous cycles. Common to both oestrous and menstruating species are the physiological changes to the reproductive tract in preparation for mating and

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Masanori Ito, Tomohiko Urano, Hisahiko Hiroi, Mikio Momoeda, Mayuko Saito, Yumi Hosokawa, Ryo Tsutsumi, Fumiko Zenri, Minako Koizumi, Hanako Nakae, Kuniko Horie-Inoue, Tomoyuki Fujii, Tetsu Yano, Shiro Kozuma, Satoshi Inoue and Yuji Taketani

are related to uterine differentiation in normal female reproduction. Several investigators have identified the genes regulated by P 4 in the uterus using cDNA microarray analyses ( Cheon et al . 2002 , Jeong et al . 2005 ). Recently, gene

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Lian Liu, Singareddy Rajareddy, Pradeep Reddy, Krishna Jagarlamudi, Chun Du, Yan Shen, Yongzhi Guo, Karin Boman, Eva Lundin, Ulrika Ottander, Gunnar Selstam and Kui Liu

& Albertini 1994 , Elvin & Matzuk 1998 , McGee & Hsueh 2000 , Vanderhyden 2002 ). The bidirectional communication between oocytes and granulosa cells is essential for follicular development, which maintains female reproduction ( Wassarman & Albertini 1994

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N Hoggard, M Cruickshank, K M Moar, P Barrett, S Bashir and J D B Miller

Tannetta D Groome N Sargent I 2004 Activin and follistatin in female reproduction . Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 225 45 – 56 . Plotsky PM Kjaer A Sutton SW Sawchenko PE Vale W 1991 Central activin administration

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Thomas P Meehan, Barry G Harmon, Megan E Overcast, Kristine K Yu, Sally A Camper, David Puett and Prema Narayan

distinct phenotype even though LHR is critical for female reproduction ( Themmen & Huhtaniemi 2000 ). However, current analysis of the female phenotype has been limited primarily to hormone analysis and the families investigated have mutations involving

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Nelson D Horseman and Karen A Gregerson

mouse PRL gene (humanized PRL mice) ( Christensen et al . 2013 ). There are fundamental physiological differences between human and rodent PRL, which are most obvious in female reproduction. For example, the rodent corpus luteum is dependent on