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Ilaria Cimmino, Francesco Oriente, Vittoria D’Esposito, Domenico Liguoro, Pasquale Liguoro, Maria Rosaria Ambrosio, Serena Cabaro, Francesco D’Andrea, Francesco Beguinot, Pietro Formisano and Rossella Valentino

documented ( Mauvais-Jarvis et al. 2013 , Kim et al. 2014 , Wang et al. 2016 ). Among endocrine disruptors with estrogen-like activity, Bisphenol-A (BPA), a monomer of polycarbonate plastics with lipophilic features, at very low doses contributes to

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Jason F Ohlstein, Amy L Strong, John A McLachlan, Jeffrey M Gimble, Matthew E Burow and Bruce A Bunnell

Introduction Bisphenol A (BPA) is a compound used ubiquitously in the plastic manufacturing industry for various applications, such as lining of plastic containers ( Le et al . 2008 ), and aluminum cans ( Hugo et al . 2008 ), receipt paper

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Ciro Menale, Maria Teresa Piccolo, Grazia Cirillo, Raffaele A Calogero, Alfonso Papparella, Luigi Mita, Emanuele Miraglia Del Giudice, Nadia Diano, Stefania Crispi and Damiano Gustavo Mita

Introduction Bisphenol A (BPA) is the key monomer in the production of the polycarbonate and epoxy resins the are used for many food containers, such as cans or bottles for children ( Halden 2010 ). BPA belongs to the class of endocrine disruptor

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Karen Jesus Oliveira, Maria Isabel Chiamolera, Gisele Giannocco, Carmen Cabanelas Pazos-Moura and Tania Maria Ortiga-Carvalho

2) and 3 (D3, DIO3). In physiologic balance, T4 and T3 (3) regulate their own concentrations in the blood by negative feedback acting at the hypothalamic (1) and pituitary (2) levels ( Ortiga-Carvalho et al . 2016 ). BPA, bisphenol A; DHA

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H Inoshita, H Masuyama and Y Hiramatsu

An endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC) can alter endocrine functions through a variety of mechanisms, including nuclear receptor-mediated changes in protein synthesis, interference with membrane receptor binding, steroidogenesis or synthesis of other hormones. Although major chemicals have been shown to disrupt estrogenic actions mainly through their binding to estrogen receptor (ER) or androgen receptor, it is not clear how EDCs affect endocrine functions in vivo. We present evidence that the EDCs bisphenol A and phthalate activate ER-mediated transcription through interaction with TRAP220. Moreover, bisphenol A had positive effects on the interaction between ER-beta and TRAP220 and on the expression of ER-beta and TRAP220 compared with phthalate and estradiol in uterine tIssue. These data suggested that some EDCs might alter endocrine function through the change of the receptor and coactivator levels in uterine tIssue and through the different effect on the interaction between ERs and coactivator TRAP220.

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Elin Swedenborg, Joëlle Rüegg, Sari Mäkelä and Ingemar Pongratz

increased lipolysis and decreased glucose oxidation, both symptoms characteristic of diabetes and obesity ( Hoppe & Carey 2007 ). Yet another example is bisphenol A (BPA), a monomer with strong estrogenic properties, used in its polymeric form as lining of

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Abby F Fleisch, Robert O Wright and Andrea A Baccarelli

exposure to offspring epigenetic modifications. Bisphenol A (BPA), a synthetic chemical and weak estrogen agonist found in food and beverage containers ( Le et al . 2008 ), baby bottles ( Nam et al . 2010 ), and dental materials ( Fleisch et al . 2010

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Michael E Baker and Gary Hardiman

ring on estradiol (E 2 ), and bisphenol A (BPA), which mimic the A and D rings on E 2 , can disrupt physiological responses mediated by the ER ( Sonnenschein & Soto 1998 , Diamanti-Kandarakis et al . 2009 , Rubin 2011 , Baker & Chandsawangbhuwana

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Marcel J M Schaaf

pesticides (e.g. dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT)), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), bisphenol A (BPA), phtalates, flavonoids and polycyclic musks ( Frye et al . 2012 , Gore et al . 2015 ). The main mechanism of action for these compounds is

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Cecilia Verga Falzacappa, Eleonora Petrucci, Valentina Patriarca, Simona Michienzi, Antonio Stigliano, Ercole Brunetti, Vincenzo Toscano and Silvia Misiti

-genomic actions of T 3 in pancreatic β cells. Materials and methods 3,5,3′-Tri-iodothyronine (T 3 ), LY-294 002 hydrochloride, 3,5,3′-tri-iodoacetic acid (TRIAC), bisphenol A dimethacrylate (BPA), and cycloheximide (CHX) were obtained from