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Guillaume Pidoux and Kjetil Taskén

localization, and/or association with other proteins. Kinases and phosphatases have a central role in signal transduction pathways and differ in substrate specificity, acting on serine, threonine, or tyrosine residues. Since protein phosphorylation affects many

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Flavia Giannone, Giorgio Malpeli, Veronica Lisi, Silvia Grasso, Priyanka Shukla, Dunia Ramarli, Silvia Sartoris, Vladia Monsurró, Mauro Krampera, Eliana Amato, Giuseppe Tridente, Marco Colombatti, Marco Parenti and Giulio Innamorati

et al . 2005 ). Unfortunately, thus far, no clear physiological outcome has convincingly been associated to G15 activity. Treasuring on indications provided by studies in signal transduction, future research will identify circumstances where G15

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David Aguinaga, Mireia Casanovas, Rafael Rivas-Santisteban, Irene Reyes-Resina, Gemma Navarro and Rafael Franco

messenger as calcium ions or inositol-3-phosphate. As σ 1 R are not coupled to any known signal transduction machinery, the guide indicates that ‘there is only a modest pharmacological overlap and no structural convergence with the GPCRs’ ( http

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Fumihiko Hakuno and Shin-Ichiro Takahashi

R69 – R75 . ( https://doi.org/10.1172/JCI8339 ) 10.1172/JCI8339) Kurihara S Hakuno F Takahashi S 2000 Insulin-like growth factor-I-dependent signal transduction pathways leading to the induction of cell growth and differentiation of human

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Olivier Sandra, Isabelle Bataillon, Pascale Roux, Jacques Martal, Gilles Charpigny, Pierrette Reinaud, Philippe Bolifraud, Guy Germain and Kaïs H Al-Gubory

IFN receptors (IFNARs), signals through the Janus kinase/ signal transduction and activators of transcription (JAK/ STAT) pathway and regulates a set of IFN-responsive genes including STATs 1 and 2, β2-macroglobulin, IFN regulatory factors (IRFs) 1 and

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T Yamaguchi, A Kurisaki, N Yamakawa, K Minakuchi and H Sugino

( Cameron et al. 1997 ). FKBP12 also regulates TGF-β superfamily signal transduction ( Wang et al. 1994 , 1996 , Okadome et al. 1996 , Chen et al. 1997 , Wang & Donahoe 2004 ). FKBP12 interacts with the type I receptors of the TGF

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Jandee Lee, Mi-Youn Seol, Seonhyang Jeong, Hyeong Ju Kwon, Cho Rok Lee, Cheol Ryong Ku, Sang-Wook Kang, Jong Ju Jeong, Dong Yeob Shin, Kee-Hyun Nam, Eun Jig Lee, Woong Youn Chung and Young Suk Jo

signaling, linking RHO and RAS signal transduction ( Jaffe et al . 2004 ). In addition, CNKSR1 acts as a scaffold protein for the AKT–FOXO signaling axis, and also promotes invasion of cancer cells via NFκB-dependent signaling ( Fritz & Radziwill 2010

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Xin-wei Chen, Ye-hong Li, Meng-jun Zhang, Zhou Chen, Dian-shan Ke, Ying Xue and Jian-ming Hou

). However, there have been no studies on the effects of LF in senile osteoporosis to date. The insulin/IGF1 signaling pathway was the first cell signaling mechanism that has been clearly shown to influence aging ( Kenyon et al. 2010 ). IGF1 is a critical

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Jinghua Peng and Ling He

enzymes and glucose transporter expression in rat liver and adipose tissues . Metabolism 44 228 – 233 . ( https://doi.org/10.1016/0026-0495(95)90270-8 ) 10.1016/0026-0495(95)90270-8 7869920 Avruch J 1998 Insulin signal transduction through

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Nelson D Horseman and Karen A Gregerson

Introduction The goal of this review is to provide an analytical update on the biology of prolactin (PRL) actions, with a bias toward its effects in mammals, especially humans. The signal transduction mechanisms that underlie these biological