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J H Duncan Bassett and Graham R Williams

hormone receptors . Bone 36 607 – 616 . Liu YY Schultz JJ Brent GA 2003 A thyroid hormone receptor alpha gene mutation (P398H) is associated with visceral adiposity and impaired catecholamine-stimulated lipolysis in mice . Journal of

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Yanxia Tang and GuoDong Li

increased plasma levels of free fatty acids (FFAs) resulting from lack of appropriate suppression of adipocyte lipolysis due to insulin resistance and deficiency ( Reaven 1988 , Imrie et al . 2010 ). Furthermore, circulating levels of FFAs are usually

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L J Moran, P A Mundra, H J Teede, and P J Meikle

metabolic effects including suppression of lipogenesis and enhancement of lipolysis ( Shirouchi et al . 2007 ). Elevated lysophosphatidylcholine may indicate an increase in phospholipase activity which is highly expressed in the atherogenic plaque and

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Yanjun Liu, Yuichi Nakagawa, Ying Wang, Limei Liu, Hongwei Du, Wei Wang, Xiuhai Ren, Kabirullah Lutfy, and Theodore C Friedman

adipose tissue and decreases lipolysis . Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 92 857 – 864 . Walker BR Connacher AA Lindsay RM Webb DJ Edwards CR 1995 Carbenoxolone increases hepatic insulin sensitivity in man: a novel role for 11

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Afreen Idris Shariff, Sohail Syed, Rebecca A Shelby, Jeremy Force, Jeffrey Melson Clarke, David D’Alessio, and Leonor Corsino

adipose tissue, CST increases the breakdown of lipids by inducing lipolysis and raising local accumulation of non-sterified fatty acids, a mechanism that has been associated with greater increasing insulin resistance ( Perez et al. 2014 ). Apart from

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Johan Svensson, Sofia Movérare-Skrtic, Sara Windahl, Charlotte Swanson, and Klara Sjögren

some or all of the lipolysis that is independent of hormone-sensitive lipase ( Soni et al . 2004 ), was up-regulated in muscle by E 2 , indicating increased utilization of free fatty acids as fuel. Synaptic transmission DHT up-regulated several genes

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Pierre Poinsot, Martin Schwarzer, Noël Peretti, and François Leulier

actions or lipolysis ( Bergan-Roller & Sheridan 2017 ). Anabolic actions of GH in juvenile growth act by well-known mechanism associated with positive nitrogen balance, protein synthesis in muscle and stimulation of the longitudinal bone growth ( Chikani

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Qi Zhang, Qin Zhu, Ruyuan Deng, Feiye Zhou, Linlin Zhang, Shushu Wang, Kecheng Zhu, Xiao Wang, Libin Zhou, and Qing Su

reticulum-tethered transcription factor cAMP responsive element-binding protein, hepatocyte specific, regulates hepatic lipogenesis, fatty acid oxidation, and lipolysis upon metabolic stress in mice . Hepatology 55 1070 – 1082 . ( https://doi.org/10

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Elisa Manieri and Guadalupe Sabio

secretion of adipokines ( Gavrilova et al . 2000 ). In the obese state, adipocyte enlargement induces molecular and cellular alterations that affect whole-body metabolic homeostasis. Increased lipolysis in adipocytes leads to increased hyperlipidaemia and

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Bo Zhou, Huixia Li, Jiali Liu, Lin Xu, Qinyue Guo, Hongzhi Sun, and Shufang Wu

476 – 491 . ( doi:10.1016/j.cell.2007.08.047 ). Stralfors P Honnor RC 1989 Insulin-induced dephosphorylation of hormone-sensitive lipase: correlation with lipolysis and cAMP-dependent protein kinase activity . European Journal of Biochemistry