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Ni Yan, Shuai Meng, Rong-Hua Song, Qiu Qin, Xuan Wang, Qiuming Yao, Yanfei Jiang, Wenjuan Jiang, Liangfeng Shi, Jian Xu and Jinan Zhang

elements, are involved in the initiation and/or development of AITDs. However, the pathophysiologic changes seen in AITDs are mediated by inflammatory cytokines ( Ganesh et al . 2011 ). Cytokines are crucial regulators to promote or suppress inflammation

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Alvaro Moreira, Samuel Kahlenberg and Peter Hornsby

purposes of this review, studies examining the regenerative properties of MSCs will be generalized into the following major themes: vascular development, anti-inflammation and anti-fibrosis ( Fig 3 ). Figure 3 Therapeutic effects of mesenchymal stem

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Yasmine Hachemi, Anna E Rapp, Ann-Kristin Picke, Gilbert Weidinger, Anita Ignatius and Jan Tuckermann

acute and chronic inflammation as well as pain. In addition, they are components of certain cancer therapies. High GC doses resulting from corticosteroid or from the stress response, induce a number of side effects, including strong effects on the

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Jiazhong Sun, Yancheng Xu, Haohua Deng, Suxin Sun, Zhe Dai and Yanlei Sun

inflammation and the inflammatory response. The adipokines appear to be involved in a wide range of physiological processes, including hemostasis, lipid metabolism, blood pressure regulation, insulin sensitivity, and angiogenesis ( Fruhbeck et al . 2001

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Pilar Argente-Arizón, Santiago Guerra-Cantera, Luis Miguel Garcia-Segura, Jesús Argente and Julie A Chowen

local network. Studies indicating that the activation of hypothalamic glial cells in response to high-fat diet (HFD) intake is involved in central inflammation and insulin resistance have drawn increasing attention to the role that these cells play in

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Carolyn M Mitchell, Shane D Sykes, Xin Pan, Kirsty G Pringle, Eugenie R Lumbers, Jonathan J Hirst and Tamas Zakar

Introduction Parturition is associated with inflammation in the fetal membranes and the decidua. Array-based studies assessing the expression of a large number of genes simultaneously as well as studies determining the expression level of

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A Stevens, C De Leonibus, D Hanson, A W Dowsey, A Whatmore, S Meyer, R P Donn, P Chatelain, I Banerjee, K E Cosgrove, P E Clayton and M J Dunne

used to investigate the metabolic regulation of adipocytes in obesity in order to further understand the cascade of events progressing from adipocyte expansion to immune cell recruitment and initiation of inflammation ( Kamei et al . 2006 ). Lipidomics

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Ping Jiang, Jinwen Xu, Shuhui Zheng, Jinghe Huang, Qiuling Xiang, Xiaodong Fu and Tinghuai Wang

the atherosclerotic lesions ( Laman et al . 2002 , Liu et al . 2006 ). Among these etiological factors, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an outer-membrane component of Gram-negative bacteria, is the most important one responsible for vascular inflammation

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Limin Tian, Luyan Zhang, Jing Liu, Tiankang Guo, Cuixia Gao and Jing Ni

accelerate AS. The central events of AS include endothelial dysfunction ( Atochin & Huang 2010 ), inflammation, and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) proliferation. It is worth noting that endothelial cell dysfunction is generally accepted as an early step

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Eva Tudurí, Monica Imbernon, Rene Javier Hernández-Bautista, Marta Tojo, Johan Fernø, Carlos Diéguez and Rubén Nogueiras

-Hyiaman et al . 2008 ). In addition, activation of CB1 increases lipogenesis and inflammation and reduces lipolysis, in the white adipose tissue (WAT) ( Silvestri & Di Marzo 2013 ). Furthermore, CB1 activation impairs insulin sensitivity, as evidenced by