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Elin Swedenborg, Joëlle Rüegg, Sari Mäkelä and Ingemar Pongratz

CYP19B (aromatase), which converts testosterone to estradiol is a direct AhR target gene. Thus, activation of AhR by EDCs can lead both to increased degradation of steroid hormones as well as to higher estradiol production. Is exposure to EDCs involved

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Li Zhang, Jie Gao and Sheng Cui

events ( Otsuka et al . 2008 , Donadeu et al . 2012 ). There are scant data about the function of microRNA in the ovary. One such miRNA, miR-378, regulates estradiol production by targeting aromatase ( Xu et al . 2011 ). miR-224 is involved in TGF

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Luiz Henrique de Castro Assis, Rafael Henrique de Nóbrega, Nuria Esther Gómez-González, Jan Bogerd and Rüdiger Winfried Schulz

or of gonadal aromatase activity had no repercussions on spermatogenesis, the E2 effects we observed may indicate a negative feedback on the brain–pituitary system. This view is strengthened by recent studies: only following brain aromatase gene knock

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Fernanda N Cavalcanti, Thais F G Lucas, Maria Fatima M Lazari and Catarina S Porto

. 2001 , Carpino et al . 2004 , Shayu & Rao 2006 , Joseph et al . 2011 ). Cytochrome P450 aromatase has been shown to be present in the caput epithelium and interstitium of the epididymis of the mouse ( Joseph et al . 2011 ), rat, human, and monkey

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Marcel J M Schaaf

, so this was considered to reflect ER activation by endogenous estradiol. In a second transgenic line, GFP was coupled to the promoter of the brain aromatase b gene ( cyp19a1b ), resulting in specific GFP expression in radial glial cells in the area

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Jack-Michel Renoir, Céline Bouclier, Amélie Seguin, Véronique Marsaud and Brigitte Sola

not by ICI in an ER-independent mechanism ( Zheng et al . 2007 ). E 2 -induced apoptosis also occurs in BC cells resistant to long-term oestrogen deprivation (aromatase inhibitors) and to AEs ( Gottardis et al . 1988 , Lewis et al . 2005 ) and E 2

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J M Young and A S McNeilly

development reaches the preovulatory stage ( Young & McNeilly 2010 ). Before the expression of aromatase in granulosa cells, follicles are exposed to varying levels of androgens derived from thecal cells largely under the control of LH. In vitro , testosterone

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Jerzy-Roch Nofer

to the notion that these hormones exert potent atheroprotective effects. Actually, accelerated development of atherosclerosis has been observed in male subjects deficient in P450 aromatase, an enzyme that converts androgens to estrogens, and

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Salman Azhar, Dachuan Dong, Wen-Jun Shen, Zhigang Hu and Fredric B Kraemer

peripheral conversion of androstenedione. Testosterone is then converted to more potent dihydrotestosterone (DHT) by 5α reductase, or by aromatase (CYP19A1) to more potent estrogen (the estradiol). Testosterone is the hormone responsible for male sexual

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Adrien Georges, Aurelie Auguste, Laurianne Bessière, Anne Vanet, Anne-Laure Todeschini and Reiner A Veitia

-specific enhancer of Sox9 in mouse ( Uhlenhaut et al . 2009 ). FOXL2 has been described in various species as a positive regulator of Cyp19a1 , which encodes the aromatase, responsible for the last step of oestrogen production in GCs ( Pannetier et al . 2006