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Ronald M Evans

to and augments the severity of the disease. Evan Simpson reviews how chronic inflammation associated with high fat diet disrupts the normally tight regulation of the aromatase gene. Aromatase is involved in the biosynthesis of estrogen, the ligand

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Silvia Giatti, Mariaserena Boraso, Roberto Cosimo Melcangi and Barbara Viviani

processes that occur in the CNS. Different events (inflammation, infection, aging, neurodegenerative diseases) could be the causative factor for the activation of microglia and astrocytes, the immune cells of CNS. It leads to a series of concomitant

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Cory J Xian

inhibition of these cytokines. They point out that, while the currently available cytokine-targeting biologics could be used to reduce growth retardation in children with chronic inflammation, further work is needed to develop more effective specific cytokine

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Michael A Gentile, Pascale V Nantermet, Robert L Vogel, Robert Phillips, Daniel Holder, Paul Hodor, Chun Cheng, Hongyue Dai, Leonard P Freedman and William J Ray

Muscle structure 2.16 <0.001 Ctgf Connective tissue growth factor NM_022266 Receptor ligand/ECM remodeling/inflammation 2.14 0.016 Ggps1 Geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase 1 NM_001007626 Isoprenyl synthase/protein lipidation 2.08 <0.001 Ccl7 Chemokine (C

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Elisa Manieri and Guadalupe Sabio

-grade inflammation state ( Neels & Olefsky 2006 ), with increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and interleukin 6 (IL6) and of circulating free fatty acids (FFA), causing the activation of stress-induced mechanisms in

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Kira Meyerovich, Fernanda Ortis and Alessandra K Cardozo

( Chatterjee et al . 2017 ), T1D is mainly a result of an autoimmune attack leading to β-cell destruction ( Christoffersson et al . 2016 ). Islet inflammation has been considered as a key feature of T1D, and it is now recognized that inflammation also

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Alice Guyon and Jean-Louis Nahon

physiological effects. Indeed, SDF-1 (5–67) implanted into the basal ganglia of mice can produce neuronal death and inflammation, and its actions are mediated through a G-protein-coupled receptor, as yet unidentified ( Zhang et al. 2003 ). It is therefore

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Xiao-Qiu Wang, Jing Yu, Xue-Zhen Luo, Ying-Li Shi, Yun Wang, Ling Wang and Da-Jin Li

endometriosis ( Rier & Foster 2002 ). TCDD appears to be antagonistic and analogous to estrogen, so effects of TCDD on the action of estrogen and inflammation may be mainly mechanic in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. Our previous work has shown that the

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Sumaira Z Hasnain, Johannes B Prins and Michael A McGuckin

translation ( Walter & Ron 2011 ) and initiate inflammation and apoptosis ( Hasnain et al . 2012 , Eizirik et al . 2013 ). Oxidative and ER stress are closely entwined phenomena because oxidative stress can induce protein misfolding by disturbing the ER

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Jinghua Peng and Ling He

. 2014 ). Figure 2 Phosphorylation of IRS at serine and threonine residues by Ser/Thr kianses impairs insulin signaling. Activation of Ser/Thr kianses by hyperglycemia, lipids, inflammation and ER stress leads to the inhibitory serine and threonine