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Matthew L Rise, Susan E Douglas, Dionne Sakhrani, Jason Williams, K Vanya Ewart, Marlies Rise, William S Davidson, Ben F Koop and Robert H Devlin

Introduction Growth hormone (GH), synthesized largely by the pituitary gland, regulates longitudinal growth in vertebrates. GH-mediated signaling occurs in many tissues, and impacts cellular metabolism, proliferation, and

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Elisabeth Sambroni, Antoine D Rolland, Jean-Jacques Lareyre and Florence Le Gac

Vi). Normalization procedure Expression data were normalized as described previously ( Rolland et al . 2009 ). Briefly, raw data (Si) were corrected for the vector signal (Vi) proportional to the amount of spotted cDNA (Si/Vi). To avoid the bias

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Arnaud Droit, Guy G Poirier and Joanna M Hunter

to the understanding of the molecular role of the cell in the execution of various biological functions. These interactions form the basis of phenomena such as DNA replication and transcription, metabolic pathways, signaling pathways and cell cycle

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Ciro Menale, Maria Teresa Piccolo, Grazia Cirillo, Raffaele A Calogero, Alfonso Papparella, Luigi Mita, Emanuele Miraglia Del Giudice, Nadia Diano, Stefania Crispi and Damiano Gustavo Mita

BPA and a consistent reduction of insulin downstream signaling. Another study ( Wang et al . 2013 ) reported that environmentally relevant BPA concentrations in adipocytes from children increase the expression and the enzymatic activity of 11β

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Luiz Henrique de Castro Assis, Rafael Henrique de Nóbrega, Nuria Esther Gómez-González, Jan Bogerd and Rüdiger Winfried Schulz

-López et al . 2010 , Chauvigné et al . 2012 ). On the other hand, zebrafish ( Danio rerio ) Sertoli cells also express the lhcgr gene ( García-López et al . 2010 ), altogether resulting in overlapping actions of gonadotropin signalling ( Xie et al

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Xinran Hu, David Friedman, Salisha Hill, Richard Caprioli, Wendell Nicholson, Alvin C Powers, Lawrence Hunter and Lee E Limbird

Introduction Three subtypes of α 2 adrenergic receptors (AR; α 2A , α 2B and α 2C ) ( Ruffolo & Hieble 1994 , Docherty 1998 ) are known to regulate multiple signaling pathways by coupling to G i and G o proteins. Although

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Biswapriya B Misra, Carl Langefeld, Michael Olivier and Laura A Cox

provide novel insights into metabolic, regulatory and signaling activities in a given cell or tissue. However, similar to proteins, metabolites are not amplifiable and only 15–30% of the entire mass spectra are identifiable and quantifiable, thus limiting

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H Watanabe, A Suzuki, M Goto, S Ohsako, C Tohyama, H Handa and T Iguchi

showed a diagonal line, indicating that most gene expression levels did not change to a large extent, and that there was little bias during data acquisition and analysis. As a result, it was found that 28 annotated genes were activated and 20 annotated

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Sasha R Howard

affected with delayed puberty ( Winter et al. 2016 ). Within the probands there is still a preponderance of boys, pointing to referral bias as the reason for more male patients being seen in the clinical setting. Self-limited delayed puberty is often

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Chunmei Wang and Yong Xu

). Accumulating evidence also indicates that these sex hormones can bind to membrane receptors and exert rapid signal transduction effects in target cells ( Mamounis et al. 2014 ). As outlined below, these sex hormones and their receptors contribute to the