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Annu Makker, Madhu Mati Goel and Abbas Ali Mahdi

, suppresses autophagy, and regulates transcription factors HIF1α and VEGF expression. mTORC2 regulates the actin cytoskeleton and activates Akt through phosphorylation of ser473. Signaling through RTKs activates the adaptor proteins growth factor receptor

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Aniello Cerrato, Valentina De Falco and Massimo Santoro

occur among the various proteins are represented. For instance, RTKs like RET are known to directly phosphorylate beta-catenin and STAT, besides activating them through RAS and AKT. Moreover, AKT may directly phosphorylate IKK proteins. Figure 2

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Ida G Anemaet, Juan Diego González, María C Salgado, Marina Giralt, Felipe Fernández, Isabel V Baanante and Isidoro Metón

under various metabolic conditions indicate that the proteins exert distinct roles in the liver of S. aurata : cAlt2 expression occurs in liver under gluconeogenic conditions, while cAlt1 is predominant during postprandial utilization of dietary

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Jiayu Jin, Xinhong Wang, Xiuling Zhi and Dan Meng

also serve as transcriptional regulators that mediate chromatin remodelling by binding to RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) such as EIF4A3, FUS and HUR in promoter regions of the host gene ( Zhang et al. 2017 b ). Table 2 Circular RNAs associated

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Farhana Naznin, Koji Toshinai, T M Zaved Waise, Tadashi Okada, Hideyuki Sakoda and Masamitsu Nakazato

expressing the orexigenic neuropeptides agouti-related peptide (AgRP) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) ( Date et al . 2006 ). GHSR, a G-protein-coupled receptor, activates the intracellular Ca 2+ signaling and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathways

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Carrie S Shemanko

-0502 ) Ali S Ali S 2000 Recruitment of the protein-tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2 to the C-terminal tyrosine of the prolactin receptor and to the adaptor protein Gab2 . Journal of Biological Chemistry 275 39073 – 39080 . ( doi:10.1074/jbc

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Quinn Dufurrena, Nils Bäck, Richard Mains, Louis Hodgson, Herbert Tanowitz, Prashant Mandela, Betty Eipper and Regina Kuliawat

1998 Mannose 6-phosphate receptors are sorted from immature secretory granules via adaptor protein AP-1, clathrin, and syntaxin 6-positive vesicles . Journal of Cell Biology 141 359 – 371 . ( ) 10.1083/jcb

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Niamh X Cawley, Zhaojin Li and Y Peng Loh

showed that the C-terminus of CPE specifically bound to dynactin from AtT20 cell lysates ( Park et al . 2008 ). The complex contained kinesins 2 and 3 as well as dynein; microtubule dependent motor proteins for anterograde and retrograde transport

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Junye Chen, Yi Lu, Mengyuan Tian and Qiren Huang

localization. Phosphorylation of FOXO1 causes it to be excluded from the nucleus ( Zhang et al. 2002 ). Protein phosphatase 2 (PP2A) has been shown to be a FOXO1 phosphatase, which dephosphorylates FOXO1 either in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus ( Yan et al

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Karine Rizzoti

a repressor of Wnt activity. Conditional mutation is now required to assess its function directly. PITX1/PITX2 The paired homoeodomain PITX proteins are important morphogenetic regulators for different organs. They are also well known for their role