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Jianling Xie, Norhan M El Sayed, Cheng Qi, Xuechan Zhao, Claire E Moore and Terence P Herbert

. 2009 ). Previous studies have implicated both cAMP- ( Buteau et al . 2003 , Song et al . 2008 ) and β-arrestin ( Talbot et al . 2012 )-dependent mechanisms in the proliferative effects of GLP1 on pancreatic β-cells. In addition, it has been reported

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Thierry Brun and Benoit R Gauthier

2030 ( www.who.int/dietphysicalactivity/publications/facts/diabetes/en ). Diabetes mellitus was recently reclassified into three main entities: 1) type 1 diabetes which is linked to selective autoimmune destruction of pancreatic β-cells, 2) type 2

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Hanna K Nyblom, Ernest Sargsyan and Peter Bergsten

Introduction Pancreatic β-cells exposed to high glucose concentrations for an extended time period show impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) ( Eizirik et al . 1992 ) and increased β-cell death ( Leonardi et al . 2003 ), a

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Maria Sörhede Winzell and Bo Ahrén

management of type 2 diabetes . International Journal of Biochemistry and Cellular Biology 38 831 – 844 . Dickson LM Rhodes CJ 2004 Pancreatic β-cell growth and survival in the onset of type 2 diabetes: a role for protein kinase B in the Akt? American

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Lykke Blaabjerg, Gitte L Christensen, Masahito Matsumoto, Talitha van der Meulen, Mark O Huising, Nils Billestrup and Wylie W Vale

Introduction Pancreatic β-cell death occurs in type 1 as well as type 2 diabetes mellitus, leading to a progressive decline in β-cell function and β-cell mass. Although the initiating mechanism differs, some signaling pathways are relevant to both

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Suzuka Onishi and Kohsuke Kataoka

Introduction Insulin is a peptide hormone secreted from pancreatic β-cells that plays a critical role in glucose homeostasis. The β-cell-restricted expression of the insulin (preproinsulin) gene is directed by its ~350 bp promoter region and

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Jacques-Antoine Haefliger, Françoise Rohner-Jeanrenaud, Dorothée Caille, Anne Charollais, Paolo Meda and Florent Allagnat

Niederhauser G Fahmi D Plaisance V Brajkovic S Beeler N Allagnat F Haefliger JA Regazzi R Waeber G 2011 Role for inducible cAMP early repressor in promoting pancreatic β cell dysfunction evoked by oxidative stress in human and rat

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Guoying Chang, Rui Yang, Yanan Cao, Aifang Nie, Xuefan Gu and Huiwen Zhang

conditions, glucose-induced insulin release depends on rapid glucose uptake and metabolism in the pancreatic β-cells, which results in increased cytosolic ATP/ADP, sequential closure of ATP-sensitive potassium channels (K ATP ) and depolarization of the cell

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Hamedeh Ghanaat-Pour, Zhen Huang, Mikael Lehtihet and Åke Sjöholm

framework for the analysis of microarray expression data: regularized t-test and statistical inferences of gene changes. Bioinformatics 17 509 –519. Bonner-Weir S & Weir GC 2005 New sources of pancreatic β-cells. Nature

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Talitha van der Meulen and Mark O Huising

Georgia S Tschen SI Fan G Bhushan A 2011 Pancreatic β cell identity is maintained by DNA methylation-mediated repression of Arx . Developmental Cell 20 419 – 429 . ( doi:10.1016/j.devcel.2011.03.012 ). Dor Y Brown J Martinez OI