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Inagadapa J N Padmavathi, Kalashikam Rajender Rao, and Manchala Raghunath

development programs the endocrine pancreas and insulin-sensitive tissues, resulting in IR and diabetes in later life ( Snoeck et al . 1990 ). In utero protein restriction reduces pancreatic β-cell number in rat offspring and blunts insulin secretion in

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Thierry Brun and Benoit R Gauthier

, and the use of pharmacological agents that stimulate insulin secretion, decrease hepatic glucose production and increase sensitivity of target tissues to insulin. Nonetheless, often type 2 diabetic patients, like type 1 diabetics, require insulin

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Fabio Malavasi, Silvia Deaglio, Gianluca Zaccarello, Alberto L Horenstein, Antonella Chillemi, Valentina Audrito, Sara Serra, Marina Gandione, Andrea Zitella, and Alessandro Tizzani

+ release from intracellular cADPR-sensitive stores and Ca 2+ influx from extracellular sources play important roles in insulin secretion ( Kato et al . 1995 ). Later experiments performed in CD38 knockout (KO) mice showed impaired glucose tolerance, with

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Lynley D Pound, Suparna A Sarkar, Stéphane Cauchi, Yingda Wang, James K Oeser, Catherine E Lee, Philippe Froguel, John C Hutton, and Richard M O'Brien

( Stancakova et al . 2009 ), and reduced first-phase insulin secretion ( Stancakova et al . 2009 ). This same variant is also associated with autoantibody epitope specificity changes in human type 1 diabetes ( Wenzlau et al . 2008 ). The rs13266634 variant

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Y Y Liu, W Jia, I E Wanke, D A Muruve, H P Xiao, and N C W Wong

control of pancreatic insulin secretion is a key step in regulating activity of the hormone. The use of glucose to manipulate secretion of engineered insulin from a non-pancreatic cell remains a challenge. Information derived from such a system would help

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Patrizia Morera, Loredana Basiricò, Kenji Hosoda, and Umberto Bernabucci

, leading to an overall decrease in fat deposition ( Ailhaud 2006 , Lafontan & Viguerie 2006 ). In addition to its insulin-sensitising effect, adiponectin may modify glucose metabolism by stimulating pancreatic insulin secretion ( Rabe et al . 2008 ). Few

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Carmela Santangelo, Paola Matarrese, Roberta Masella, Maria Chiara Di Carlo, Angela Di Lillo, Beatrice Scazzocchio, Elio Vecci, Walter Malorni, Riccardo Perfetti, and Emanuela Anastasi

hyperlipidemia contribute to β-cells dysfunction and a decrease of β-cell mass ( Dickson & Rhodes 2004 ). Free fatty acids (FFAs), at physiological concentrations, modulate the process of basal and glucose-induced insulin secretion in pancreatic β

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Jong-Ik Hwang, Seongsik Yun, Mi Jin Moon, Cho Rong Park, and Jae Young Seong

Introduction Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1) is a gastrointestinal peptide hormone that stimulates insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells and promotes insulin synthesis ( Schmidt et al . 1985 , Fehmann & Habener 1992 , Moon et al . 2011 ). GLP

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Jianling Xie, Norhan M El Sayed, Cheng Qi, Xuechan Zhao, Claire E Moore, and Terence P Herbert

adiposity is associated with insulin resistance, an important contributing factor in the development of T2DM. However, although the majority of people who are obese are insulin resistant, they maintain normoglycemia through an increase in insulin secretion

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Valérie Baldacchino, Sylvie Oble, Patrick-Olivier Décarie, Isabelle Bourdeau, Pavel Hamet, Johanne Tremblay, and André Lacroix

GIP in the regulation of insulin secretion by the pancreatic β-cells ( Dupré et al. 1973 ). As previously described in rat ( Usdin et al. 1993 ) and in human ( Chabre et al. 1998 ) we also identified GIP-R mRNA in several regions of the brain