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Belen Brie, Ana Ornstein, Maria Cecilia Ramirez, Isabel Lacau-Mengido and Damasia Becu-Villalobos

( Ling et al . 2010 , Sugathan & Waxman 2013 ). Chromatin structure can impact on sex-differential chromatin accessibility, sex-biased gene expression, and DNAse hypersensitive sites (DHS) ( Sugathan & Waxman 2013 ). Furthermore, methylation of gene

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Elena Ivanova and Gavin Kelsey

(as a common mediator of G protein-coupled receptor signalling) has been selected only for a subset of the functions it serves. Stage- or tissue-specific imprinting might be the consequence of the fact that most imprinted genes in clusters are not

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Jing He, David M Irwin, Rui Chen and Ya-Ping Zhang

/transversional substitution bias was taken into account ( Li 1993 , Pamilo & Bianchi 1993 ). Results and discussion Conservation of genomic context and disruption of the MLN and MLNR genes in mouse and rat Despite several attempts, previous investigators have failed to

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Chen-Tian Shen, Wei-Jun Wei, Zhong-Ling Qiu, Hong-Jun Song, Xin-Yun Zhang, Zhen-Kui Sun and Quan-Yong Luo

have demonstrated that metformin could inhibit cell proliferation and promote apoptosis in multiple thyroid cancer cell lines through adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling

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Nandana Das and T Rajendra Kumar

kinase C) responsiveness indicates that the effect of GnRH on transcriptional regulation of mouse Cga is most likely through the PKC pathway. Various groups also investigated signaling pathways in addition to deciphering DNA elements and transcription

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Zsolt Csaba, Stéphane Peineau and Pascal Dournaud

; TMD, transmembrane domain. β-Arrestins were originally identified as negative regulators of GPCR signaling, including desensitization and internalization ( DeFea 2011 ). Recent studies have revealed that β-arrestins also serve as intracellular

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Yu-Feng Zhao, Damien J Keating, Maria Hernandez, Dan Dan Feng, Yulong Zhu and Chen Chen

secretion similar to that in type 2 diabetes ( Kulkarni et al. 1999 a ), strongly supporting the notion that insulin resistance in these cells could lead to β-cell dysfunction. The insulin signaling pathway in pancreatic β-cells occurs when insulin

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Lei Yang, Hongzheng Meng and Maowei Yang

signal of autophagy and apoptosis in osteoblasts treated with AGEs. Conflict of interest statement None of authors in this paper has any financial or personal relationships with other people or organizations that could influence (bias) the

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Gabriela Silva Monteiro de Paula, Marianna Wilieman, Karina Ribeiro Silva, Leandra Santos Baptista, Sihem Boudina, Luana Lopes de Souza, Thais Bento-Bernardes, Karina Dutra Asensi, Regina Coeli dos Santos Goldenberg and Carmen Cabanelas Pazos-Moura

include, isobutylmethylxanthine (to increase intracellular cAMP), dexamethasone and insulin. However, the precise mechanisms require further studies. NB receptor is a G protein-coupled receptor, which signals primarily through phospholipase C

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Shilpa Thakur, Brianna Daley and Joanna Klubo-Gwiezdzinska

mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway ( Plews et al. 2015 ). Since p70S6K/pS6 is downstream of mTOR, inhibition of mTOR hampers their activation leading to reduced protein synthesis, which is necessary for cancer cell growth ( Lei et al