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Yanjun Cui and Xianhong Gu

Introduction Increasing global warming has resulted in increased research on the detrimental effects of heat stress (HS) on animal welfare and livestock production ( Laganá et al . 2007 , Yu et al . 2010 ). Pigs experience HS when ambient

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Tara Sabo-Attwood, Jason L Blum, Kevin J Kroll, Vishal Patel, Detlef Birkholz, Nancy J Szabo, Suzanne Z Fisher, Robert McKenna, Martha Campbell-Thompson and Nancy D Denslow

reporter gene assays ( Sohoni & Sumpter 1998 , Gaido et al. 2000 , Yoon et al. 2000 ). Previous reports demonstrate that NP binds directly to the estrogen receptor (ER) and subsequently induces transcription of downstream genes regulated by this

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Eirini Meimaridou, Sakina B Gooljar and J Paul Chapple

to proteins that become damaged by environmental stress or are mutated. Cytosolic, nuclear and ER proteins are primarily degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS), however, most cells also rely on lysosomal proteolysis pathways, particularly

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Lesley A Powell, Katherine M Warpeha, Weiming Xu, Brian Walker and Elisabeth R Trimble

. Catherwood MA , Powell LA, Anderson P, McMaster D, Sharpe PC & Trimble ER 2002 Glucose-induced oxidative stress in mesangial cells. Kidney International 61 599 –608. Cavicchi M & Whittle BJ 1999 Regulation of iNOS and

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Shirlene X Ong, Keefe Chng, Michael J Meaney and Jan P Buschdorf

-releasing factor (CRF) and cortisol ( Goland et al . 1993 ). Interestingly, maternal stress, protein deprivation, tobacco, and alcohol predict impaired fetal growth and increase maternal adrenal glucocorticoid release, which increases placental CRF expression

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Angelina Rafaela Debortoli, Wender do Nascimento Rouver, Nathalie Tristão Banhos Delgado, Vinicius Mengal, Erick Roberto Gonçalves Claudio, Laena Pernomian, Lusiane Maria Bendhack, Margareth Ribeiro Moysés and Roger Lyrio dos Santos

with G-1, fluorescence levels increased in male rats ( Fig. 6C ), while no difference was observed in the female group ( Fig. 6G ). Figure 5 Oxidative stress levels in coronary arteries based on dihydroethidium fluorescence (DHE, red staining

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Hyon-Seung Yi, Joon Young Chang and Minho Shong

been the identification of the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPR mt ), a retrograde stress response induced by mitochondrial proteotoxic stress. The UPR mt was discovered in the late 1990s and is an area of increased scientific interest for

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Jack-Michel Renoir, Céline Bouclier, Amélie Seguin, Véronique Marsaud and Brigitte Sola

, Liu et al . 2002 , Lindberg et al . 2003 , Faulds et al . 2004 , Strom et al . 2004 ), and the balance between the levels of ER subtypes appears as an important regulator of the mitogenic activity of 17 beta oestradiol (E 2 ; Matthews et al

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María Angeles Arevalo, María Santos-Galindo, Natalia Lagunas, Iñigo Azcoitia and Luis M Garcia-Segura

cofactors ( Norris et al . 1999 , Klinge 2000 , McKenna & O'Malley 2002 , Belandia & Parker 2003 ). Therefore, SERMs may act as ER agonists in the brain and as antagonists in others tissues, such as breast tumors. Here, we will briefly review new

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Jakob Bondo Hansen, Laila Romagueira Bichara Dos Santos, Ying Liu, Kacey J Prentice, Frederik Teudt, Morten Tonnesen, Jean-Christophe Jonas, Michael B Wheeler and Thomas Mandrup-Poulsen

activation and ER stress, since (1) they contain predicted binding sites for the transcription factors AP1 and XBP1 respectively; (2) AP1 activity is increased by glucotoxicity in a beta-cell line and (3) Xbp1 mRNA is increased in rat islets by palmitate