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J Jason Collier, Tim E Sparer, Michael D Karlstad and Susan J Burke

chemokines in monogenic rodent models of obesity and diabetes. Animal model (species) Relevant human condition Islet chemokine production References Akita (mouse) ER stress/insulin insufficiency No a Burke SJ (unpublished

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Daniela Nasteska and David J Hodson

fail are well defined, at least in rodents, and encompass loss of glucose responsiveness, de-differentiation, ER stress and apoptosis, all probably secondary to a combination of glucolipotoxicity and cytotoxicity ( Porte & Kahn 2001 , Prentki & Nolan

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Louise K Metcalfe, Greg C Smith and Nigel Turner

responses, is known as IR. Although incompletely defined, a number of different mechanisms have been proposed to promote the development of IR, including overproduction of reactive oxygen species, dysfunction of mitochondria, induction of ER stress and

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Feng Fang, Jiamao Zheng, Traci L Galbaugh, Alyson A Fiorillo, Elizabeth E Hjort, Xianke Zeng and Charles V Clevenger

2+ homeostasis after ER stress . Journal of Cell Science 121 3636 – 3648 . Kofron JL Kuzmic P Kishore V Colon-Bonilla E Rich DH 1991 Determination of kinetic constants for peptidyl prolyl cis – trans isomerases by an improved

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Y Y Liu, W Jia, I E Wanke, D A Muruve, H P Xiao and N C W Wong

markers denoting ER stress ( Rivera et al . 2000 , Tian et al . 2008 ). In summary, the work of others suggests that replicating pancreatic insulin release in non-islet cells remains an elusive goal. Toward this objective, we have devised a way that

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Susan M van den Berg, Andrea D van Dam, Pascal J H Kusters, Linda Beckers, Myrthe den Toom, Saskia van der Velden, Jan Van den Bossche, Irma van Die, Mariëtte R Boon, Patrick C N Rensen, Esther Lutgens and Menno P J de Winther

K Kaneko K Tsukita S Takahashi K 2017 ER stress protein CHOP mediates insulin resistance by modulating adipose tissue macrophage polarity . Cell Reports 18 2045 – 2057 . ( doi:10.1016/j.celrep.2017.01.076 ) 10.1016/j.celrep.2017

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Andrew Whittle

increasingly viewed as potent signalling molecules in their own right in the context of metabolic disease ( Wymann & Schneiter 2008 ). Palmitate for instance plays a key role in macrophage dysfunction and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated apoptosis

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Qun Cheng, Weipin Dong, Lei Qian, Jingcheng Wu and Yongde Peng

proliferation via NMN-mediated ERK1/2 and p38 signaling ( Wang et al . 2009 a , b ). Visfatin protects macrophages from ER stress-induced apoptosis by activating an IL6/STAT3 signaling pathway beyond phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt) and enzymatic mechanism

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Xiuli Lu, Yang Li, Jianli Liu, Xiangyu Cao, Xude Wang, Delong Wang, Hisao Seo and Bing Gao

-apoptotic activity in many cell types. We have also observed that DHCR24 can protect cells from ER stress-induced apoptosis by scavenging excess reactive oxygen species (ROS; Lu et al . 2009 ). The mechanisms of the anti-apoptotic function of DHCR24 have been

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Gill Holdsworth, Scott J Roberts and Hua Zhu Ke

chain ( Col10a1 ) gene in transgenic mice resulted in production of collagen X chains, which were poorly secreted from the cell. Accumulation of this mutant protein promoted ER stress and activation of the unfolded protein response in immature osteocytes