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Eva Tudurí, Monica Imbernon, Rene Javier Hernández-Bautista, Marta Tojo, Johan Fernø, Carlos Diéguez and Rubén Nogueiras

central GPR55 signaling on food consumption, a number of pharmacological studies have been performed in animal models; however, many of them employed cannabinoid receptor/lipid biased compound libraries, which lead to lack of receptor selectivity

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Aurimas Vinckevicius and Debabrata Chakravarti

Introduction Hormones are important signaling molecules that facilitate intercellular communication and synchronization not only between adjacent cells (paracrine signaling) but also between distant organs in the body through endocrine signaling

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Cheryl A Conover and Claus Oxvig

Introduction The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system is complex with IGF ligand–IGF receptor (IGF-IR) interaction initiating multiple downstream intracellular signaling pathways and feedback loops (refer the article by Shin

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Michael E Baker and Gary Hardiman

receptor signaling by EDCs poses a threat to many physiological responses in humans, fish, and other animals ( Grun & Blumberg 2006 , Swan 2008 , Diamanti-Kandarakis et al . 2009 , Heindel & vom Saal 2009 , Soto et al . 2009 , Vandenberg et al

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A R Rodrigues, D Sousa, H Almeida and A M Gouveia

MM 2011 The E92K melanocortin 1 receptor mutant induces cAMP production and arrestin recruitment but not ERK activity indicating biased constitutive signaling . PLoS ONE 6 e24644 . ( doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0024644 ). Bermak JC Li M

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Annalisa Terranegra, Anita Ferraretto, Elena Dogliotti, Milena Scarpellini, Sabrina Corbetta, Anna Maria Barbieri, Anna Spada, Teresa Arcidiacono, Francesco Rainone, Andrea Aloia, Daniele Cusi, Giuseppe Vezzoli and Laura Soldati

) receptors and activation of the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade through p44/42 extracellular signaling-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation. These events are facilitated by the scaffolding protein filamin A. The changes in intracellular

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Ryan J O Dowling, Saroj Niraula, Vuk Stambolic and Pamela J Goodwin

-based registries, thereby limiting external validity and introducing potential selection biases. Inclusion criteria varied. Some studies did not exclude individuals with prior diagnosis of cancer, thus introducing a possible reverse causation bias. Other studies

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Gioia Altobelli

a streamlined analysis workflow, I want to stimulate and support the reader's intellectual curiosity and desire to develop individualized skills. Background The physiological responses of cells to any molecular signal are shaped by the molecular

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Tram B Doan, J Dinny Graham and Christine L Clarke

with the development of endocrine therapies targeting the estrogen biosynthesis and signaling pathways. Despite the success of endocrine therapies, there remain subgroups of women for whom available treatment offers little help. These include patients

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Denis Nonclercq, Fabrice Journé, Ioanna Laïos, Carole Chaboteaux, Robert-Alain Toillon, Guy Leclercq and Guy Laurent

, Bjornstrom & Sjoberg 2005 ). In the former case, estrogens have been shown to exert their action via membrane-bound form(s) of ER capable of interacting with various signal transduction pathways ( Kelly & Levin 2001 , Levin 2001 , Watson et al. 2002