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Zhao Yang, Zhi-Li Huang and Ya-Xiong Tao

confirmed its importance in receptor expression, ligand binding, signal transduction and internalization ( Ernst et al . 2000 , Marin et al . 2000 , Tetsuka et al . 2004 , Faussner et al . 2005 , Kuwasako et al . 2011 ). In the present study, we

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Samantha Gardner, Emmanouil Stavrou, Patricia E Rischitor, Elena Faccenda and Adam J Pawson

Introduction GnRH occupancy of GnRH receptors leads to the activation of multiple signal transduction pathways ( Naor 1997 , 2009 , Naor et al . 2000 , Millar et al . 2004 , 2008 , Caunt et al . 2006 , Dobkin-Bekman et al . 2006 ). In

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Anna Maria Di Blasio, Michele Vignali and Davide Gentilini

AEA ( Hillard & Jarrajan 2003 ) and endocytosis ( McFarland et al . 2004 ) have been hypothesised. Signal transduction and biological activity AEA and 2-AG exert most of their biological effects by binding to the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2

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M J Waters, H N Hoang, D P Fairlie, R A Pelekanos and R J Brown

within the kinase-activation loop, hence JAK2 activation. JAK2 phosphorylation of selected receptor cytoplasmic domain tyrosine residues sets up binding sites for Src homology 2 (SH2) domain-containing proteins such as signal transduction and activators

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J Kim, L Jia, M R Stallcup and G A Coetzee

alterations and androgen-independent activation of AR via various signal transduction pathways ( Feldman & Feldman 2001 ). These mechanisms are not mutually exclusive but may in fact constitute compensatory measures that cooperate to establish androgen

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Yue Wang, Xiu Long Niu, Xiao Qin Guo, Jing Yang, Ling Li, Ye Qu, Cun Xiu Hu, Li Qun Mao and Dan Wang

multiple signal transduction pathways such as JAK/STATs, MEK/ERK and PI3K/Akt pathways ( Hirano et al . 1997 ). The crosstalk between membrane-ER-induced intracellular signal transduction cascades and IL6-induced signal transduction pathways may include

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Jarrod Bailey, Alison J Tyson-Capper (née Pollard), Kate Gilmore, Stephen C Robson and G Nicholas Europe-Finner

of which is linked to gestational physiological processes such as tissue, extracellular matrix and cytoskeletal remodelling, signal transduction, activity of cytokines, hormones and their receptors, and of course muscular contractility. They also

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N Renlund, Y Jo, I Svechnikova, M Holst, D M Stocco, O Söder and K Svechnikov

RI being responsible for signal transduction ( Dinarello et al. 1989 ). Both of these receptors are expressed by the Leydig cells, Sertoli cells and macrophages in the testis ( Petersen et al. 2002 , Svechnikov et al. 2003 ). Recently

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Sudipta Paul, Sourav Kundu, Kousik Pramanick, Arun Bandyopadhyay and Dilip Mukherjee

) and lead to the activation of multiple signal transduction pathways, including the adenylate cyclase-/cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathway and calcium-/calmodulin-dependent pathways (see review in Leung & Steele (1992) and Van Der

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Cecilia Verga Falzacappa, Eleonora Petrucci, Valentina Patriarca, Simona Michienzi, Antonio Stigliano, Ercole Brunetti, Vincenzo Toscano and Silvia Misiti

receptors for the hormone that may be linked to signal transduction pathways. Membrane-binding sites for thyroid hormones were identified years ago in cell membranes isolated from human and rat hepatocytes ( Gharbi & Torresani 1979 , Pliam & Goldfine 1997