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Daniel Baron, Julie Cocquet, Xuhua Xia, Marc Fellous, Yann Guiguen and Reiner A Veitia

the expression profile of aromatase, the key enzyme involved in estrogen production. Materials and methods Evolutionary analysis The sequences of the FoxL2 orthologs from Tetraodon nigroviridis and

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S Kuntz, D Chardard, C-I Ko, H Dumond, M Ducatez, M Callier, S Flament and A Chesnel

many enzymes required for steroid hormone production, including aromatase ( Parker & Schimmer 2002 ). For instance, in rat and man, SF-1 binds to the aromatase promoter and activates its transcription ( Lynch et al. 1993 , Michael et al. 1995 ). SF

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Wei-An Lai, Yi-Ting Yeh, Wei-Ling Fang, Leang-Shin Wu, Nobuhiro Harada, Peng-Hui Wang, Ferng-Chun Ke, Wen-Ling Lee and Jiuan-Jiuan Hwang

Introduction The steroid hormone estrogen governs female reproductive competence and whole-body well-being ( Rosenfeld et al . 2001 ). Estrogens in the circulation are largely produced in ovarian granulosa cells through aromatase conversion of

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C Mittelholzer, E Andersson, D Consten, T Hirai, Y Nagahama and B Norberg

steroidogenesis occurs in ovarian follicles, mediated by changes in gene expression of steroidogenic enzymes like ovarian P450 aromatase (encoded by the cyp19a1 gene) and 20β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (20β-HSD; Senthilkumaran et al . 2004 ). This is

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Ylenia Perone and Luca Magnani

are characterized by different mechanisms of action. For example, selective estrogen receptor modulators, such as tamoxifen, antagonize the receptor in breast tissue but can have agonistic effect in the endometrium. Aromatase inhibitors (AI), such as

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Ayse Basak Engin, Atilla Engin and Ipek Isik Gonul

, obesity-related breast inflammation is critical for the induction of aromatase activity. Aromatase also mediates the crosstalk of obesity-associated inflammation and hormone alterations in breast cancer ( Subbaramaiah et al. 2012 ). However, aromatase

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Carlos Stocco, Jakub Kwintkiewicz and Zailong Cai

Introduction In rats, luteal function is sustained in part by the luteotropic action of locally produced estradiol ( Stocco et al. 2007 ). Estradiol biosynthesis depends on the expression of the aromatase enzyme. This enzyme is encoded by the Cyp

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D Montanaro, M Maggiolini, A G Recchia, R Sirianni, S Aquila, L Barzon, F Fallo, S Andò and V Pezzi

a final volume of 50 μl. Aromatase activity assay The aromatase activity in subconfluent H295R cell culture medium was measured by tritiated water-release assay using 0.5 μM [1β- 3 H(N)]androst-4-ene-3,17-dione (25

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Carla A Piccinato, Helena Malvezzi, Douglas A Gibson and Philippa T K Saunders

utilise inhibitors of the aromatase enzyme, which is essential for biosynthesis of oestrogens by ovarian follicles ( Lindsay et al. 2015 , Vercellini et al. 2016 ). Some reports suggest these treatments may result in pain reduction up to 80% of

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SE Bulun, KM Zeitoun, K Takayama and H Sasano

Conversion of C(19) steroids to estrogens is catalyzed by aromatase in human ovary, placenta and extraglandular tissues such as adipose tissue, skin and the brain. Aromatase activity is not detectable in normal endometrium. In contrast, aromatase is expressed aberrantly in endometriosis and is stimulated by prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)).( )This results in local production of estrogen, which induces PGE(2) formation and establishes a positive feedback cycle. Another abnormality in endometriosis, i.e. deficient hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17beta-HSD) type 2 expression, impairs the inactivation of estradiol to estrone. These molecular aberrations collectively favor accumulation of increasing quantities of estradiol and PGE(2 )in endometriosis. The clinical relevance of these findings was exemplified by the successful treatment of an unusually aggressive case of postmenopausal endometriosis using an aromatase inhibitor.