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C Folgueira, S Barja-Fernandez, P Gonzalez-Saenz, V Pena-Leon, C Castelao, M Ruiz-Piñon, F F Casanueva, R Nogueiras and L M Seoane

associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress ( Kim et al . 2016 ). In line with this observation, a recent study has found that inflammation correlates with decreased circulating proUGN levels female adolescents with obesity ( Di Guglielmo et al . 2017

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Daniel Raleigh, Xiaoxue Zhang, Benoît Hastoy and Anne Clark

lysosomal storage compartment (lipofuscin bodies). Overexpression (right hand side) of prohIAPP affects trafficking through the ER, overloading the UPR and creating ER stress which can lead to cell death. High concentrations of prohIAPP will aggregate in the

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Zodwa Dlamini, Fortunate Mokoena and Rodney Hull

apoptosis due to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress Huang et al . (2007) ABCC8/SUR1 Truncated transcript is thought to decrease the sensitivity of KATP channels to ATP resulting in insulin inhibition Sakamoto et al . (2007) , Schmid et al

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Andrea Weckman, Antonio Di Ieva, Fabio Rotondo, Luis V Syro, Leon D Ortiz, Kalman Kovacs and Michael D Cusimano

to oncogenic or genotoxic stress, the Bcl2 protein family, eIF2alpha, which is activated under conditions of nutrient deprivation and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, the Ras pathway and several other modulators ( Tallóczy et al . 2002 , Codogno

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Qi Cheng, Violeta D Beltran, Stanley M H Chan, Jeremy R Brown, Alan Bevington and Terence P Herbert

increase BCAA uptake. LAT1 expression is upregulated not only by growth factors via the activation of mTORC1 but also by ER stress, probably via ATF4 ( Harding et al. 2003 , Liu et al. 2004 , Wang et al. 2011a , Krokowski et al. 2013 , Cnop et

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Katherine A Robinson, Jonathan W Brock and Maria G Buse

therapeutic target for diabetes and ER stress-related human diseases, e.g. Wolfram syndrome ( Lerner et al . 2012 , Oslowski et al . 2012 ). Declaration of interest The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest that could be perceived as

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Kira Meyerovich, Fernanda Ortis and Alessandra K Cardozo

IL-1β ( Roggli et al . 2010 ), further in vivo studies are necessary to evaluate its role in β-cell demise during T1D. Oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, elevated levels of free fatty acids, glucotoxicity and a low

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Jakob Bondo Hansen, Laila Romagueira Bichara Dos Santos, Ying Liu, Kacey J Prentice, Frederik Teudt, Morten Tonnesen, Jean-Christophe Jonas, Michael B Wheeler and Thomas Mandrup-Poulsen

activation and ER stress, since (1) they contain predicted binding sites for the transcription factors AP1 and XBP1 respectively; (2) AP1 activity is increased by glucotoxicity in a beta-cell line and (3) Xbp1 mRNA is increased in rat islets by palmitate

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Ana Pestana, João Vinagre, Manuel Sobrinho-Simões and Paula Soares

pathways and cellular processes Besides the major TERT regulators and targets previously described, several roles for TERT have been described in other signalling pathways and cellular processes. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress transiently activates

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Cristina L Esteves, Val Kelly, Valérie Bégay, Simon G Lillico, Achim Leutz, Jonathan R Seckl and Karen E Chapman

M Qadri I Rahman SM Schroeder-Gloeckler J Janssen RC Friedman JE 2011 C/EBPβ is AMP kinase sensitive and up-regulates PEPCK in response to ER stress in hepatoma cells . Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 331 102 – 108 . ( doi:10