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Haihua Yang and Linghai Yang

signaling. Metformin also increases cellular AMP to inhibit adenylyl cyclase (AC) and thus suppresses cAMP synthesis. (C) Regulation of lipolysis in adipocyte. Glucagon and epinephrine increase lipolysis in adipocytes by stimulating PKA

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Hui Juan Zhu, Hui Pan, Xu Zhe Zhang, Nai Shi Li, Lin Jie Wang, Hong Bo Yang, and Feng Ying Gong

BCA Protein Assay Reagent kit (Pierce, Rockford, IL, USA). Intracellular lipid contents, which were determined by the two methods just described, were normalized against the protein. Lipolysis assay 3T3-L1 cells were differentiated and treated with

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D F Garcia-Diaz, J Campion, F I Milagro, N Boque, M J Moreno-Aliaga, and J A Martinez

of adipocyte lipolysis ( Misekova et al . 1993 , Hasegawa et al . 2002 , Senen et al . 2002 , Garcia-Diaz et al . 2009 ), glucocorticoid release from adrenal glands ( Doulas et al . 1987 ), hyperglycemia improvement and glycosylation decrease

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K Alexander Iwen, Rebecca Oelkrug, and Georg Brabant

system (SNS) ( Nakamura & Morrison 2008 ). Subsequently, the SNS stimulates the release of noradrenaline from postganglionic sympathetic fibres and induces β3-adrenergic receptor (ARB3)-mediated pathways that activate lipolysis and the release of free

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Chung Thong Lim, Blerina Kola, and Márta Korbonits

carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1) activity and the subsequent activation of fatty acid oxidation ( Kahn et al . 2005 , Lopez et al . 2007 ). The decreased AMPK activity in visceral fat could enhance lipolysis as well as lipogenesis, although the

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Ming Zhu, Meng Wang, Yijun Chen, and Chao Zhang

lipolysis and re-esterification through the cAMP/PKA and MAPK/ERK1/2 pathways ( Rodrigues et al . 2013 ). MC5R also participates in the energy homeostasis since it can increase glucose uptake in skeletal muscle through the PKA pathway ( Enriori et al

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M Hołysz, N Derebecka-Hołysz, and W H Trzeciak

lipolysis and hormone-sensitive lipase by insulin and glucose . Diabetes 48 1691 – 1697 . doi:10.2337/diabetes.48.9.1691 . Boyd GS Trzeciak WH 1973 Cholesterol metabolism in the adrenal cortex: studies on the mode of action of ACTH . Annals of

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Carmelo Quarta, Roberta Mazza, Renato Pasquali, and Uberto Pagotto

-induced activation of the SNS, which innervates the WAT, thereby reducing fat mass through stimulation of SNS-dependent lipolysis ( Haifei et al . 2009 ). Importantly, there is evidence that the activity of the melanocortin system is directly regulated by leptin and

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Rose Kohlie, Nina Perwitz, Julia Resch, Sebastian M Schmid, Hendrik Lehnert, Johannes Klein, and K Alexander Iwen

.g. treatment of adipocytes causes an increase of UCP1 concentrations as well as an induction of lipolysis and subsequently a rise of free fatty acid (FFA) levels ( Collins et al . 2010 ). FFA themselves can further increase UCP1 activity, but they may also

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Alok Mishra, Xu-guang Zhu, Kai Ge, and Sheue-Yann Cheng

lipogenesis and lipolysis. The underlying mechanisms, however, have only begun to be unraveled in recent years. Genetically engineered mice are valuable tools to gain insights into the role of TRs in lipid metabolism and energy balance. Mice deficient in Trα1