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Pitchai Balakumar and Gowraganahalli Jagadeesh

2011 , Audet & Bouvier 2012 , Shukla 2014 ). Selective G protein-independent signaling has led to the development of ‘biased agonists’ that preferentially activate G protein-independent signaling while blocking the often detrimental G protein

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Erica J P Anderson, Isin Çakir, Sheridan J Carrington, Roger D Cone, Masoud Ghamari-Langroudi, Taneisha Gillyard, Luis E Gimenez and Michael J Litt

together, these findings reveal a novel MC4R signaling pathway, and the potential for the creation of biased ligands that favor the ion channel direct interaction/activation paradigm over classical G protein signaling, making this receptor one of only a

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L Quignodon, C Legrand, N Allioli, A Guadaño-Ferraz, J Bernal, J Samarut and F Flamant

provide another level of regulation to T3 distribution. All these observations suggest that T3 signaling in the developing brain can be modulated at several levels by both intracellular and extracellular events and does not directly reflect T3

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I J Bujalska, M Quinkler, J W Tomlinson, C T Montague, D M Smith and P M Stewart

criteria: (1) genes with absent call in control and treated cell arrays were deleted; (2) genes with difference call of no change were deleted; (3) genes with absolute signal below 100 were eliminated; (4) genes with signal log ratio (SLR) below 1 for I

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Juan Zhang, Yunting Zhou, Cheng Chen, Feiyuan Yu, Yun Wang, Jiang Gu, Lian Ma and Guyu Ho

Introduction The body's nutritional state is sensed by the brain, whereby feed-back signals are generated to maintain metabolic homeostasis ( Blouet & Schwartz 2010 , Jordan et al . 2010 ). The hypothalamus, particularly the arcuate nucleus (ARC

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Soumyadeep Dey, Xiaoxia Li, Ruifeng Teng, Mawadda Alnaeeli, ZhiYong Chen, Heather Rogers and Constance Tom Noguchi

its deletion in mice (EpoR −/− ) is embryonic lethal due to severe anemia ( Wu et al . 1995 ). In addition, EpoR signaling in non-hematopoietic cells has pleiotropic effects beyond erythropoiesis ( Noguchi et al . 2008 , Alnaeeli et al . 2012 ). In

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Ivo J P Arnhold, Marcela M França, Luciani R Carvalho, Berenice B Mendonca and Alexander A L Jorge

, 2005 ). Gli2 is a member of the Gli family of proteins (including Gli1 and Gli3) which are involved in the Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) signalling pathway. SHH (Shh, OMIM*600725) induces tissue-specific cellular proliferation during embryogenesis

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Sunan Li, Juxiong Liu, Qingkang Lv, Chuan Zhang, Shiyao Xu, Dongxue Yang, Bingxu Huang, Yalong Zeng, Yingjie Gao and Wei Wang

, what does it do? Frontiers of Hormone Research 42 163 – 174 . ( doi:10.1159/000358345 ) Evron T Peterson SM Urs NM Bai Y Rochelle LK Caron MG Barak LS 2014 G Protein and beta-arrestin signaling bias at the ghrelin

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Nelson D Horseman and Karen A Gregerson

Introduction The goal of this review is to provide an analytical update on the biology of prolactin (PRL) actions, with a bias toward its effects in mammals, especially humans. The signal transduction mechanisms that underlie these biological

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Ying Li, Michael Wallis and Ya-ping Zhang

possum and chicken PRLR being used as outgroups. PRLR is a transmembrane receptor containing a signal region, and we therefore divided the sequence data into four subsets representing four functional regions (signal peptide, ECD, TMD and ICD) when