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B Gallwitz, M Witt, U R Fölsch, W Creutzfeldt and W E Schmidt

ABSTRACT

Glucagon-like peptide-1(7–36)amide (GLP-1(7–36) amide) and gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), peptides of the glucagon family, stimulate insulin secretion in vitro and in vivo. They possess high N-terminal sequence homology. Binding studies with 125I-labelled GIP and 125I-labelled GLP-1(7– 36)amide were performed in RINm5F insulinoma cells to investigate receptor specificity and to compare both receptors directly. Both binding sites were highly ligand-specific: GIP did not bind to the GLP-1(7–36)amide receptor and vice versa. Both peptides increased intracellular cyclic AMP levels; GLP-1(7– 36)amide was 100-fold more potent in stimulating cyclic AMP production when compared with GIP. At ranges of 1–10 nmol GLP-1(7–36)amide/1 and 0·1–10 GIP/1, corresponding to submaximal binding concentrations, the hormones showed an additive effect on cyclic AMP production. The N-terminal portion of GIP was important for binding, as GIP(1–30) showed almost full binding and biological activity. GIP(17–42) bound in a concentration-dependent manner with approximately 500-fold lower potency than GIP. At concentrations of up to 10 μmol GIP(17–42)/1 no stimulation of cyclic AMP was observed.

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C Bignon, N Daniel, L Belair and J Djiane

The recent finding that sheep had long (l-oPRLR) and short (s-oPRLR) prolactin receptors provided new tools to further explore prolactin signaling to target genes. Here we used CHO cells transfected with l-oPRLR or s-oPRLR cDNAs to compare the activation of known key steps of prolactin signaling by the two receptors. We found that prolactin stimulated l-oPRLR tyrosine phosphorylation, although it lacked the last tyrosine residue found in other long prolactin receptors. In addition, l-oPRLR and s-oPRLR both responded to prolactin stimulation by (1) Janus kinase 2 (Jak2) tyrosine phosphorylation, (2) DNA-binding activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5), (3) stimulation of transcription from a promoter made of six repeats of STAT5-responsive sequence. However, although it contains STAT5-binding consensus sequences, the ovine beta-lactoglobulin promoter (-4000 to +40) was transactivated by l-oPRLR, but not by s-oPRLR. Taken together, our results indicate that activation of Jak2/STAT5 pathway alone is not sufficient to account for prolactin-induced transcription of this milk protein gene, and that sequences of its promoter, other than STAT5-specific sequences, account for the opposite transcriptional activation capabilities of l-oPRLR and s-oPRLR.

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Katherine A Leehy, Tarah M Regan Anderson, Andrea R Daniel, Carol A Lange and Julie H Ostrander

of signal transduction pathways, thus linking phosphorylation of GR at Ser134 with robust activation of downstream pathways. Notably, 14-3-3 zeta has also been implicated as a driver of aggressive phenotypes in breast cancer. High expression of 14

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Beatriz Gámez, Edgardo Rodriguez-Carballo and Francesc Ventura

morphogenetic protein receptors and signal transduction . Journal of Biochemistry 147 35 – 51 . ( doi:10.1093/jb/mvp148 ). Mizoguchi F Izu Y Hayata T Hemmi H Nakashima K Nakamura T Kato S Miyasaka N Ezura Y Noda M 2010 Osteoclast

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Ke-Hung Tsui, Li-Chuan Chung, Shyi-Wu Wang, Tsui-Hsia Feng, Phei-Lang Chang and Horng-Heng Juang

Hypoxia induces metabolic alteration in cancer cells by stabilizing hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α (HIF1A)), which regulates the bioenergetic genes of glycolysis and lipid metabolic pathways. However, the target genes of hypoxia-induced metabolic alterations in the prostate remain uncertain. Mitochondrial aconitase (mACON) (ACONM) is an enzyme that is central to carbohydrate and energy metabolism and is responsible for the interconversion of citrate to isocitrate as part of the citric acid cycle in the human prostate. We evaluated the effects of the molecular mechanisms of hypoxia on mACON gene expression in PC-3 and LNCaP human prostate carcinoma cells. Immunoblotting assays revealed that hypoxia modulated mACON and lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) protein expression, while these effects were attenuated when HIF-1α was knocked down. Hypoxia induced fatty acid synthase (FASN) in PC-3 cells while hypoxia blocked FASN gene expression in LNCaP cells after 24-h incubation. Results of real-time RT-qPCR, immunoblotting, and transient gene expression assays revealed that hypoxia treatment or co-transfection with H IF-1α expression vector enhanced gene expression of mACON, implying that hypoxia modulated mACON at the transcriptional level. Hypoxia-induced mACON promoter activity is dependent on the DNA fragment located at −1013 to −842 upstream of the translation initiation site. l-mimosine, an iron chelator, stabilized HIF-1α but downregulated mACON gene expression, suggesting that iron chelation blocked the hypoxia-induced mACON gene expression. These results suggest that hypoxia dysregulates the expressions of LDHA, FASN, and mACON genes, and the hypoxia-induced mACON gene expression is via the HIF-1α-dependent and iron-dependent pathways in prostate carcinoma cells.

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Ana P Irazoqui, Ricardo L Boland and Claudia G Buitrago

Previously, we have reported that 1,25(OH)2-vitamin D3 (1,25D) activates p38 MAPK (p38) in a vitamin D receptor (VDR)-dependent manner in proliferative C2C12 myoblast cells. It was also demonstrated that 1,25D promotes muscle cell proliferation and differentiation. However, we did not study these hormone actions in depth. In this study we have investigated whether the VDR and p38 participate in the signaling mechanism triggered by 1,25D. In C2C12 cells, the VDR was knocked down by a shRNA, and p38 was specifically inhibited using SB-203580. Results from cell cycle studies indicated that hormone stimulation prompts a peak of S-phase followed by an arrest in the G0/G1-phase, events which were dependent on VDR and p38. Moreover, 1,25D increases the expression of cyclin D3 and the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, p21Waf1/Cip1 and p27Kip1, while cyclin D1 protein levels did not change during G0/G1 arrest. In all these events, p38 and VDR were required. At the same time, a 1,25D-dependent acute increase in myogenin expression was observed, indicating that the G0/G1 arrest of cells is a pro-differentiative event. Immunocytochemical assays revealed co-localization of VDR and cyclin D3, promoted by 1,25D in a p38-dependent manner. When cyclin D3 expression was silenced, VDR and myogenin levels were downregulated, indicating that cyclin D3 was required for 1,25D-induced VDR expression and the concomitant entrance into the differentiation process. In conclusion, the VDR and p38 are involved in control of the cellular cycle by 1,25D in skeletal muscle cells, providing key information on the mechanisms underlying hormone regulation of myogenesis.

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Irene I Lee, Nane C Kuznik, Jaice T Rottenberg, Myles Brown and Andrew C B Cato

Androgens are important determinants of normal and malignant prostate growth. They function by binding to the C-terminal ligand-binding domain (LBD) of the androgen receptor (AR). All clinically approved AR-targeting antiandrogens for prostate cancer therapy function by competing with endogenous androgens. Despite initial robust responses to androgen deprivation therapy, nearly all patients with advanced prostate cancer relapse with lethal castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Progression to CRPC is associated with ongoing AR signaling, which in part, is due to the expression of constitutively active AR splice variants that contain the N-terminus of the receptor but lack the C-terminus. Currently, there are no approved therapies specifically targeting the AR N-terminus. Current pharmacologic targeting strategies for inhibiting the AR N-terminal region have proven difficult, due to its intrinsically unstructured nature and lack of enzymatic activity. An alternative approach is to target key molecules such as the cochaperone BAG1L that bind to and enhance the activity of the AR AF1. Here, we review recent literature that suggest Bag-1L is a promising target for AR-positive prostate cancer.

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Julian C Lui, Ola Nilsson and Jeffrey Baron

For most bones, elongation is driven primarily by chondrogenesis at the growth plates. This process results from chondrocyte proliferation, hypertrophy, and extracellular matrix secretion, and it is carefully orchestrated by complex networks of local paracrine factors and modulated by endocrine factors. We review here recent advances in the understanding of growth plate physiology. These advances include new approaches to study expression patterns of large numbers of genes in the growth plate, using microdissection followed by microarray. This approach has been combined with genome-wide association studies to provide insights into the regulation of the human growth plate. We also review recent studies elucidating the roles of bone morphogenetic proteins, fibroblast growth factors, C-type natriuretic peptide, and suppressor of cytokine signaling in the local regulation of growth plate chondrogenesis and longitudinal bone growth.

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Christer M Bäck, Stefanie Stohr, Eva A M Schäfer, Heike Biebermann, Ingrid Boekhoff, Andreas Breit, Thomas Gudermann and Thomas R H Büch

Metallothioneins (MTs) are cytoprotective proteins acting as scavengers of toxic metal ions or reactive oxygen species. MTs are upregulated in follicular thyroid carcinoma and are regarded as a marker of thyroid stress in Graves' disease. However, the mechanism of MT regulation in thyrocytes is still elusive. In other cellular systems, cAMP-, calcium-, or protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent signaling cascades have been shown to induce MT expression. Of note, all of these three pathways are activated following the stimulation of the TSH receptor (TSHR). Thus, we hypothesized that TSH represents a key regulator of MT expression in thyrocytes. In fact, TSHR stimulation induced expression of MT isoform 1X (MT1X) in human follicular carcinoma cells. In these cells, Induction of MT1X expression critically relied on intact Gq/11 signaling of the TSHR and was blocked by chelation of intracellular calcium and inhibition of PKC. TSHR-independent stimulation of cAMP formation by treating cells with forskolin also led to an upregulation of MT1X, which was completely dependent on PKA. However, inhibition of PKA did not affect the regulation of MT1X by TSH. As in follicular thyroid carcinoma cells, TSH also induced MT1 protein in primary human thyrocytes, which was PKC dependent as well. In summary, these findings indicate that TSH stimulation induces MT1X expression via Gq/11 and PKC, whereas cAMP–PKA signaling does not play a predominant role. To date, little has been known regarding cAMP-independent effects of TSHR signaling. Our findings extend the knowledge about the PKC-mediated functions of the TSHR.

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I K Lund, J A Hansen, H S Andersen, N P H Møller and N Billestrup

genes through DNA binding ( Ahima & Flier 2000 , Levy & Darnell 2002 ). The mechanisms controlling and terminating the leptin signal transduction seem more elusive but are believed to include (i) internalisation and degradation of the leptin