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Carla A Piccinato, Helena Malvezzi, Douglas A Gibson and Philippa T K Saunders

inflammation and hormone dependence. Oestrogens acting via oestrogen receptors regulate processes including proliferation, angiogenesis, inflammation and differentiation, which are important in regulation of normal endometrium, endometrial pathologies

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William J Stanley, Prerak M Trivedi, Andrew P Sutherland, Helen E Thomas and Esteban N Gurzov

( Moore et al . 2009 , Santin et al . 2011 ). However, the role of PTPs, other than PTPN2, in cytokine signalling regulation remained unknown. Previously, we reported that PTPN2 and PTPN6 (SHP-1) are inactivated by inflammation-dependent oxidation in

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Sarah X Zhang, Joshua J Wang, Azar Dashti, Kenneth Wilson, Ming-Hui Zou, Luke Szweda, Jian-Xing Ma and Timothy J Lyons

Introduction Diabetic retinopathy is a common microvascular complication of diabetes and the most frequent cause of vision loss in diabetic patients ( Fong et al . 2003 ). In recent years, accumulating evidence suggests that inflammation is a key

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Jaya Nautiyal

). For example, M2 maintains homeostasis and insulin sensitivity, whereas the M1 represents a state of chronic inflammation. In a high-fat diet-induced obesity model, the number of macrophages increases from 10 to 15% of the total stromal cells, mostly in

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Choa Park, Joonwoo Park, Myeong Kuk Shim, Mee-Ra Rhyu, Byung-Koo Yoon, Kyung Sook Kim and YoungJoo Lee

Introduction Oxygen homeostasis in blood vessels has been linked to atherosclerosis ( Sluimer et al. 2008 ). Hypoxia is a major regulator of physiological processes and diseases of chronic inflammation, including angiogenesis, glycolysis and

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María Angeles Arevalo, María Santos-Galindo, Natalia Lagunas, Iñigo Azcoitia and Luis M Garcia-Segura

. 2009 , Mosca et al . 2009 ). Multiple sclerosis SERMs may reduce inflammation in the central nervous system (see below) and may therefore represent interesting therapeutic candidates for multiple sclerosis. Indeed, tamoxifen reduces in mice the degree

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Li Hu, Fengli He, Meifeng Huang, Meihua Peng, Zhiguang Zhou, Feng Liu and Yan-Shan Dai

Introduction Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus are associated with low-grade, chronic inflammation and macrophage infiltration in adipose tissue (AT) ( Weisberg et al . 2003 , Hotamisligil 2006 , 2017 , Lumeng & Saltiel 2011

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Jonathan Pham, Kanaga Arul Nambi Rajan, Ping Li and Mana M Parast

numerous other pathways, including those involved in cell proliferation, apoptosis, autophagy and inflammation (reviewed in Knight & Milner 2012 , Simmons et al . 2015 ). Sirt1 can be targeted by the naturally occurring compound, resveratrol, which has

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Amanda J Rickard and Morag J Young

-γ) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and play important roles in type I inflammation, destruction of tissue, killing of intracellular parasites and tumour resistance. In contrast, alternatively activated macrophages response to factors such as IL-4 or IL3

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Ying Li, Fuzhe Ma, Huimin Li, Yuguo Song, Huan Zhang, Ziping Jiang and Hao Wu

prolonged and intense inflammation ( Kampfer et al . 2005 , Lan et al . 2013 , Davis et al . 2018 ), which impair the normal process of wound healing. Therefore, blocking oxidative stress or inflammation under diabetic conditions may break this vicious