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Kenneth Siddle

( Wu et al . 2008 ). Tyrosine phosphorylation of IRSs creates binding sites for SH2 domains of various proteins, notably the regulatory subunits of class Ia PI3Ks and the adaptor Grb2 and also the phosphatase SHP2 and the Src family kinase Fyn. The

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Ying Chen, Hua Ni, Xing-Hong Ma, Shi-Jun Hu, Li-Ming Luan, Gang Ren, Yue-Chao Zhao, Shi-Jie Li, Hong-Lu Diao, Xiu Xu, Zhen-Ao Zhao and Zeng-Ming Yang

2.12 Lysosphingolipid and lysophosphatidic acid receptor activity Phospholipid scramblase 1 ( Plscr1 ) NM_011636 −2.11 Calcium ion binding Growth factor receptor bound protein 2 ( Grb2 ) NM_008163 −2.09 SH3/SH2 adaptor protein activity Hypothetical

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Hseng-Kuang Hsu, Pei-Lin Shao, Ke-Li Tsai, Huei-Chuan Shih, Tzu-Ying Lee and Chin Hsu

signaling may activate nuclear calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK) and result in phosphorylation of CREB, which induces the expression of anti-apoptotic genes such as Bcl-2, BDNF, Mcl-1 ( Wilson et al. 1996 , Walton & Dragunow 2000

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Pulak R Manna and Douglas M Stocco

events by which these families of proteins associate with the CRE2/AP-1 site to regulate the transcriptional machinery involved in StAR gene expression. The CRE/activating transcription factor (ATF) (TGACGTGA) and AP-1/phorbol 12-O-tetradecanoate 13

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Yiyan Wang, Xiaoheng Li, Fei Ge, Kaiming Yuan, Zhijian Su, Guimin Wang, Qingquan Lian and Ren-Shan Ge

317 ± 29 301 ± 7 (1) 1466 ± 33 (5)*  Ier2 Immediate early response 2 297 ± 17 442 ± 11 (2) 1202 ± 17 (4)*  Sh2b2 SH2B adaptor protein 2 34 ± 1 78 ± 4 (2) 133 ± 4 (4)*  Dclk2 Doublecortin-like kinase 2 18 ± 4

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Jinghua Peng and Ling He

generation of the YXXM motif ( Sun et al . 1991 ). Subsequently, an SH2 domain containing downstream mediator, such as the adaptor protein p85 in PI3K, binds to these YXXM motifs, resulting in the activation of PI3K ( Myers et al . 1992 ). On the other

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Wenhui Su and Xinchun Liu

protein–protein interactions in this study. A precleaning step was applied to avoid nonspecific IgG interaction. In brief, 2 μg normal rabbit IgG were added to 500 μg protein lysate from Sertoli cells and pre-incubated for 1 h. After addition of 10 μl

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Jarrod Bailey and G Nicholas Europe-Finner

such as cyclic-AMP response-element binding protein (CREB) ( Hoeffler et al. 1988 ), the highly spliced cyclic-AMP response-element modulator protein (CREM) ( Foulkes et al. 1991 ), and other members of the ATF family. ATF2 plays an important role

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Carlos Gaspar, Jonás I Silva-Marrero, María C Salgado, Isabel V Baanante and Isidoro Metón

, 0.05 µg/µL non-specific competitor poly (d(I–C)), nuclear extracts of HepG2 cells overexpressing Usf2, and labelled probe. DNA–protein complexes were electrophoresed at 4°C on a 5% polyacrylamide gel using 0.5× Tris-borate-EDTA buffer. DNA was

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T Yamaguchi, A Kurisaki, N Yamakawa, K Minakuchi and H Sugino

known as Smads ( Heldin et al. 1997 , Massagué 2000 , Miyazono et al. 2001 , ten Dijke & Hill 2004 ). Smad2 and Smad3 mediate TGF-β and activin signaling, while Smad1, Smad5, and Smad8 propagate BMP signals. These Smad proteins are phosphorylated