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L Y Zhou, D S Wang, B Senthilkumaran, M Yoshikuni, Y Shibata, T Kobayashi, C C Sudhakumari and Y Nagahama

derivatives and its deletion affects embryogenesis, molting and female reproduction. However, in vertebrates, presence of catalytic activity towards steroids by 17β-HSD12 has not been demonstrated so far. 17β-HSDs are required for the production of E 2

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Nelson D Horseman and Karen A Gregerson

mouse PRL gene (humanized PRL mice) ( Christensen et al . 2013 ). There are fundamental physiological differences between human and rodent PRL, which are most obvious in female reproduction. For example, the rodent corpus luteum is dependent on

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Thomas P Meehan, Barry G Harmon, Megan E Overcast, Kristine K Yu, Sally A Camper, David Puett and Prema Narayan

distinct phenotype even though LHR is critical for female reproduction ( Themmen & Huhtaniemi 2000 ). However, current analysis of the female phenotype has been limited primarily to hormone analysis and the families investigated have mutations involving

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Shaheen Khan, Fei Wu, Shengxi Liu, Qian Wu and Stephen Safe

but also by stimulation of bone formation . Journal of Clinical Investigation 89 74 – 78 . Clark JH Female reproduction and toxicology of estrogens Korach KS Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology 1998 Marcel Dekker New York 259 – 275 . Cowley

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Chan Soo Shin, Min Jae Jeon, Jae-Yeon Yang, Sun-Ju Her, Dohee Kim, Sang Wan Kim and Seong Yeon Kim

and Cellular Biology 15 4971 –4979. Sterneck E , Tessarollo L & Johnson PF 1997 An essential role for C/EBPbeta in female reproduction. Genes and Development 11 2153 –2162. Sudo H

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Carrie Y Y Cheng, Jessica Y S Chu and Billy K C Chow

. Oxytocin Oxytocin is well-established for its function in female reproduction. Oxytocin and Vp are closely related peptides, both are 9-amino-acid peptide hormones in which seven are identical, and are secreted from the posterior pituitary. Both of them

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M Udelhoven, U Leeser, S Freude, M M Hettich, M Laudes, J Schnitker, W Krone and M Schubert

869 – 877 . Burks DJ Font de Mora J Schubert M Withers DJ Myers MG Towery HH Altamuro SL Flint CL White MF 2000 IRS-2 pathways integrate female reproduction and energy homeostasis . Nature 407 377 – 382 . Cantarini MC de la

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Isadora C Furigo, Pryscila D S Teixeira, Paula G F Quaresma, Naira S Mansano, Renata Frazão and Jose Donato Jr

Myers MG 2012 Leptin action via LepR-b Tyr1077 contributes to the control of energy balance and female reproduction . Molecular Metabolism 61 – 69 . ( https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molmet.2012.05.001 ) Quaresma PGF Teixeira PDS Furigo IC

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Tara Sabo-Attwood, Jason L Blum, Kevin J Kroll, Vishal Patel, Detlef Birkholz, Nancy J Szabo, Suzanne Z Fisher, Robert McKenna, Martha Campbell-Thompson and Nancy D Denslow

males such as vitellogenins (vtgs) and choriogenins that are involved in normal female reproduction ( Allen et al. 1999 , Arukwe et al. 2001 , Kannan et al. 2003 ), impaired gonadal development ( Lin & Janz 2006 ), altered steroidogenesis

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Mellodee M White, Irene Sheffer, Jennifer Teeter and Ede Marie Apostolakis

the functional role of hypothalamic PR isoforms in female reproduction. Materials and methods Animals and treatments The genotyping protocol and general characteristics of PR isoform-specific knockout (KO)- and