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Kira Meyerovich, Fernanda Ortis, Florent Allagnat and Alessandra K Cardozo

signaling pathways mediated by the action of three signaling proteins named inositol-requiring protein 1α (IRE1α), protein kinase RNA (PKR)-like ER kinase (PERK), and activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) ( Walter & Ron 2011 ). Upon ER stress, IRE1α

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S Lortz, S Lenzen and I Mehmeti

(Prdx4). On the other hand, the activation of the ER stress pathway, which may lead to apoptotic cell death, has also been associated to the fulminant ROS generation in the ER ( Malhotra et al . 2008 , Bhandary et al . 2012 , Cao & Kaufman 2014 ). To

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Jie Sun, Yan Liu, Jinhui Yu, Jin Wu, Wenting Gao, Liyuan Ran, Rujiao Jiang, Meihua Guo, Dongyu Han, Bo Liu, Ning Wang, Youwei Li, He Huang, Li Zeng, Ying Gao, Xin Li and Yingjie Wu

of the body, the liver plays a central role in metabolic functions ( Bechmann et al. 2012 ). Abnormalities in the reciprocal regulation between autophagy and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the liver have been associated with overfeeding

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Shinobu Shimizu, Tetsuya Hosooka, Tomokazu Matsuda, Shun-ichiro Asahara, Maki Koyanagi-Kimura, Ayumi Kanno, Alberto Bartolome, Hiroaki Etoh, Megumi Fuchita, Kyoko Teruyama, Hiroaki Takahashi, Hiroyuki Inoue, Yusuke Mieda, Naoko Hashimoto, Susumu Seino and Yoshiaki Kido

suppression of serum glucagon concentrations ( Balas et al . 2007 , Ahren et al . 2010 ). Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is thought to play an important role in the development of β cell failure in type 2 diabetes ( Harding & Ron 2002 ). We have recently

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Caitlyn Nguyen-Ngo, Nanthini Jayabalan, Carlos Salomon and Martha Lappas

of GDM placenta including inflammation (as discussed in the previous section), increased placental oxidative stress ( Lappas et al. 2011 a ), mitochondrial damage ( Muralimanoharan et al. 2016 ) and ER stress ( Yung et al. 2016 ). Several

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Bethany Hart, Elizabeth Morgan and Emilyn U Alejandro

and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, metabolic dysfunction and nutrient starvation in response to impairments in mTOR and OGT signaling ( Das et al . 1998 , Wullschleger et al . 2006 , Roos et al . 2007 , 2009 , Rosario et al . 2011

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Run Yu, Chun-Rong Chen, Xiaohong Liu and János T Kodra

on P86S localization after overnight incubation (16–20 h) ( Fig. 1B ). Incubation at 27 °C largely restored plasma membrane localization of P86S. ER stressors thapsigargin and curcumin have been shown to rescue mutant G-protein-coupled receptors; the

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Ayse Basak Engin, Atilla Engin and Ipek Isik Gonul

resistance and hyperactivation of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs)-related pathways, the increased levels of aromatase activity, ER stress and excessive oxidative stress generation, uncoupled respiration and hypoxia, Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) controversy ( Simone

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Julie Amyot, Isma Benterki, Ghislaine Fontés, Derek K Hagman, Mourad Ferdaoussi, Tracy Teodoro, Allen Volchuk, Érik Joly and Vincent Poitout

) stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR) have emerged as potentially important contributors to β-cell dysfunction under a variety of stress conditions (reviewed in Eizirik et al . (2008) ). The pancreatic β-cell is particularly sensitive to ER

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Shadab Abadpour, Bente Halvorsen, Afaf Sahraoui, Olle Korsgren, Pål Aukrust and Hanne Scholz

). Human islets have been shown to express IL-22R1 and administration of IL-22 to human islets reduced oxidative and ER stress induced by pro-inflammatory cytokines and glucotoxicity in a T2DM mouse model ( Hasnain et al . 2014 ). However, the potential