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H Wang, Y Horikawa, L Jin, T Narita, S Yamada, N Shihara, K Tatemoto, M Muramatsu, T Mune and J Takeda

at various levels in many tissues. Receptors of the insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IGF) family have been implicated both in the regulation of pancreatic β-cell growth and insulin secretion. IRR, an orphan receptor of the insulin receptor

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A T Suckow, I R Sweet, B Van Yserloo, E A Rutledge, T R Hall, M Waldrop and S D Chessler

. 2002 ). Using an insulin ELISA (Crystal Chem. Inc., Downers Grove, IL, USA), we have periodically evaluated glucose-stimulated insulin secretion using static culture and similarly determined that the cells had maintained glucose responsiveness (data

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Tarlliza R Nardelli, Emerielle C Vanzela, Keli C Benedicto, Flora Brozzi, André Fujita, Alessandra K Cardozo, Décio L Eizirik, Antonio C Boschero and Fernanda Ortis

Introduction Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is caused by an autoimmune assault that induces progressive beta-cell dysfunction and apoptosis, consequently impairing insulin secretion. During insulitis, pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin 1

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Guojun Shi, Chen Sun, Weiqiong Gu, Minglan Yang, Xiaofang Zhang, Nan Zhai, Yan Lu, Zhijian Zhang, Peishun Shou, Zhiguo Zhang and Guang Ning

patients and their insulin secretion. Figure 1 FFAR2 expression is elevated in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients. (A) Relative FFAR2 mRNA expression in PBMCs of patients with recent-onset T1D ( n =33) and

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Elisa Manieri and Guadalupe Sabio

very elegant recent study showed that p38δ controls insulin secretion through the phosphorylation and inhibition of polycystic kidney disease 1 protein (PKD1) ( Sumara et al . 2009 ). PKD1 regulates insulin secretion and cell survival, and mice lacking

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Abby F Fleisch, Robert O Wright and Andrea A Baccarelli

developed glucose intolerance, impaired insulin secretion, and decreased pancreatic islet and β-cell mass compared with control offspring. Il13ra2 , part of the Jak–Stat signaling pathway, was hypomethylated and upregulated in HFD offspring, suggesting that

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Andreas Petri, Jonas Ahnfelt-Rønne, Klaus Stensgaard Frederiksen, David George Edwards, Dennis Madsen, Palle Serup, Jan Fleckner and R Scott Heller

tetrahydrobiopterin synthesis precedes nitric oxide-dependent inhibition of insulin secretion ( Laffranchi et al. 1997 ). The terms that are associated with the largest number of genes showing reduced expression at e13 are related to apoptosis. Interestingly, genes

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Kira Meyerovich, Fernanda Ortis, Florent Allagnat and Alessandra K Cardozo

to sense blood glucose and to respond to changeable demands in insulin secretion. An increase in insulin production, up to 20-fold induced by glucose, is a common physiological response of β-cells that results in an intense trafficking of proteins

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Lena Espelage, Hadi Al-Hasani and Alexandra Chadt

alterations in energy demand. In the healthy state, postprandial insulin secretion leads to enhanced glucose oxidation, while lipid oxidation is inhibited ( Chomentowski et al. 2011 ). Conversely, the insulin-resistant state is mostly characterized by

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Amanda M Ackermann and Maureen Gannon

postnatally, associated with progressively impaired insulin secretion, abnormal islet morphology, and reduced expression of insulin, Pdx1, NeuroD1, and Glut2. Additionally, insulin has been shown to be a direct transcriptional target of MafA ( Kataoka et al