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Stacey N Walters, Jude Luzuriaga, Jeng Yie Chan, Shane T Grey and D Ross Laybutt

antioxidant and pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA in islet grafts Oxidative stress and inflammation have been implicated in β-cell failure in diabetes ( Laybutt et al . 2002 , Poitout & Robertson 2008 , Donath & Shoelson 2011 , Gregor & Hotamisligil 2011

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Nikoletta G Papadopoulou, Lauren Oleson, Duraisamy Kempuraj, Jill Donelan, Curtis L Cetrulo and Theoharis C Theoharides

CRH ( Esposito et al. 2002 ). Such findings have implicated stress and mast cells in brain inflammation, including multiple sclerosis ( Goodin et al. 1999 , Mei-Tal et al. 1970 , Theoharides & Cochrane 2004 ), but did not prove that CRH had a

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Gábor Bánhegyi, Miklós Csala and Angelo Benedetti

the accumulation of immature proteins and triggers the unfolded protein response (UPR) that finally leads to a variety of downstream effects, such as apoptosis, inflammation, and insulin resistance ( Hotamisligil 2005 , Yoshida 2007 , Zhang & Kaufman

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Gillian A Gray, Christopher I White, Raphael F P Castellan, Sara J McSweeney and Karen E Chapman

/macrophages and neutrophils regulates their recruitment to sites of inflammation ( Tiganescu et al. 2011 ), phagocytic potential ( Speirs et al. 2004 ) and the release of pro-inflammatory molecules ( Zhang & Daynes 2007 ). 11β-HSD1 inhibition may therefore be

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Lichun Zhou, Baohua Ma and Xiuzhen Han

) Cardiac hypertrophy LC-3 II/I ratio and mitophagy decreased Macrophages from wild-type C57BL/6J or Atg5 +/− mice 1 μmol/L Ang II (48 h) Atg5 deficiency-mediated mitophagy aggravates cardiac inflammation and injury Zhao et al . (2014

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Andrew Whittle

certainly supported by functional data from humans ( McQuaid et al . 2011 ). These non-adipose tissues are poorly adapted for fat storage and as such succumb to lipotoxic effects that lead to increased insulin resistance, inflammation and apoptosis ( Virtue

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Ahter D Sanlioglu, Bahri Karacay, Mustafa Kemal Balci, Thomas S Griffith and Salih Sanlioglu

Obesity and inflammation Diabetes is the third most common disease and fourth leading cause of death in the world ( Tabak et al . 2012 ). Insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, and excessive glucagon secretion are the prominent features of

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Edward T Bagu and Manuela M Santos

. 2010 ). Increases in the concentration of iron and inflammation upregulate the transcription of hepcidin, while iron deficiency and hypoxia downregulate it ( Nicolas et al . 2002 ). At present, it is unclear as to what the molecular mechanisms involved

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Xinwang Chen, Xiao Jia, Jie Qiao, Youfei Guan and Jihong Kang

, and IL1β, are best known for their association with inflammation and have been reviewed in detail elsewhere ( Bohler et al . 2010 ). Leptin Named from the Greek leptos (meaning thin), leptin is a 167-amino acid protein encoded by the ob gene. It

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Michelle Mohyi and Terry J Smith

serious consideration. Figure 1 Facial portrait of a patient with relatively mild, asymmetric thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy. The patient manifests bilateral upper eyelid retraction, periorbital swelling and mild conjunctival inflammation