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Kira Meyerovich, Fernanda Ortis and Alessandra K Cardozo

IL-1β ( Roggli et al . 2010 ), further in vivo studies are necessary to evaluate its role in β-cell demise during T1D. Oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, elevated levels of free fatty acids, glucotoxicity and a low

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Ana Luísa Neves, João Coelho, Luciana Couto, Adelino Leite-Moreira and Roberto Roncon-Albuquerque Jr

concentrations, a threshold named ‘metabolic endotoxemia’ (ME; Cani et al . 2007 a ). ME may trigger toll-like receptor (TLR) 4-mediated inflammatory activation, eliciting a chronic low-grade proinflammatory and pro-oxidative stress status associated with

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Huan Zhang, Xiuxia Liu, Shanshan Zhou, Ye Jia, Ying Li, Yuguo Song, Junnan Wang and Hao Wu

Shaerzadeh F 2013 Inhibition of phosphorylation of JNK suppresses Abeta-induced ER stress and upregulates prosurvival mitochondrial proteins in rat hippocampus . Journal of Molecular Neuroscience 49 262 – 269 . ( https://doi.org/10.1007/s12031

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Melisa Kurtz, Evangelina Capobianco, Nora Martinez, Sabrina Lorena Roberti, Edith Arany and Alicia Jawerbaum

identified, is an important regulator of myocardial lipid metabolism that also contributes to the control of inflammation and oxidative stress ( Wahli & Michalik 2012 , Lee et al . 2013 , Palomer et al . 2013 ). PPARα is expressed in the fetal heart and

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Zodwa Dlamini, Fortunate Mokoena and Rodney Hull

apoptosis due to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress Huang et al . (2007) ABCC8/SUR1 Truncated transcript is thought to decrease the sensitivity of KATP channels to ATP resulting in insulin inhibition Sakamoto et al . (2007) , Schmid et al

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Rachel S Fletcher and Gareth G Lavery

2 may play a an important endogenous role in adaptation to metabolic and energy stress. The regulation of NRK2 has been determined in pathophysiological settings and in response to NAD + insufficiency ( Fig. 3 – upper panel) (Fletcher et al

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Yan Zheng and Kevin D Houston

Introduction Estrogen is a critical signaling molecule that modulates many cell signaling pathways and physiological functions. The classical mechanism by which estrogen signals in cells is via binding to estrogen receptor (ER), inducing

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Ana Paula Lepique, Miriam S Moraes, Kátia M Rocha, Claudia B Eichler, Glaucia N M Hajj, Telma T Schwindt and Hugo A Armelin

direct cause of ACTH anti-mitogenic activity, we devised a functional assay taking advantage of the gene construction, MycER chimera. MycER encodes a fusion-protein comprised by the entire c-Myc and the estrogen receptor (ER)-binding domain, whose

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Hanze Du, Limei Liu, Ying Wang, Yuichi Nakagawa, Alexei Lyzlov, Kabirullah Lutfy, Theodore C Friedman, Xiaozhong Peng and Yanjun Liu

-dependent 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD1 (HSD11B1)). 11β-HSD1 is located in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and its major function is to convert inactive cortisone (11-dehydrocorticosterone in rodents) to active cortisol (corticosterone), therefore

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Seán P Barry, Kevin M Lawrence, James McCormick, Surinder M Soond, Mike Hubank, Simon Eaton, Ahila Sivarajah, Tiziano M Scarabelli, Richard A Knight, Christoph Thiemermann, David S Latchman, Paul A Townsend and Anastasis Stephanou

Introduction The urocortins (UCNs) are 40-amino acid homologues of the hypothalamic stress peptide corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), and are widely expressed in the heart, central nervous system, gut, skeletal muscle, skin and immune system