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N Hoggard, S Bashir, M Cruickshank, J D B Miller and J R Speakman

-3 receptor are obese ( Ohki-Hamazaki et al. 1997 , Ladenheim et al. 2002 ). However, mice lacking the NMB receptor are not obese, but there is an effect on the serotonergic (5-hydroxytryptamine(HT)) system which is linked to food intake ( Yamano

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I K Lund, J A Hansen, H S Andersen, N P H Møller and N Billestrup

Introduction Leptin, the 16 kDa protein product of the obese gene ( Zhang et al. 1994 ), is an adipocyte-derived hormone, secreted in proportion to the total body fat mass ( Banks 2003 ). The primary site of leptin action is the

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He Jiang, Xiao-Ping Ye, Zhong-Yin Yang, Ming Zhan, Hai-Ning Wang, Huang-Min Cao, Hui-Jun Xie, Chun-Ming Pan, Huai-Dong Song and Shuang-Xia Zhao

focus to the crucial role of excess Ald in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular events and metabolic syndrome (MS) ( Fallo et al . 2006 ). It is well known that obesity is frequently accompanied by increased plasma Ald levels, which are correlated with

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N Hoggard, D V Rayner, S L Johnston and J R Speakman

intake and body weight ( Rossi et al. 1998 , Barsh 1999 ). Conversely, single central injections of the MC4R antagonists, AgRP, SHU9119 or HS014, stimulate food intake in rodents, and chronic CNS administration leads to obesity ( Fan et al. 1997

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Karen Fjeldborg, Holger J Møller, Bjørn Richelsen and Steen B Pedersen

Introduction In obesity, there is an increased amount of macrophages in the adipose tissue (AT), which is associated with low-grade inflammation and insulin resistance ( Weisberg et al . 2003 , Dandona et al . 2004 ). CD163 is a membrane

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Loes P M Duivenvoorde, Evert M van Schothorst, Annelies Bunschoten and Jaap Keijer

Introduction Obesity is a major health concern that affects millions of people worldwide ( Kopelman 2000 , Ogden et al . 2010 ). Although white adipose tissue (WAT) plays an important role in mammalian energy homeostasis by preventing lipotoxicity

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Jiung-Pang Huang, Sheng-Chieh Hsu, Yaa-Jyuhn James Meir, Po-Shiuan Hsieh, Chih-Chun Chang, Kuan-Hsing Chen, Jan-Kan Chen and Li-Man Hung

Introduction Obesity is associated with several complications, including diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD) ( Malnick & Knobler 2006 , Poirier et al . 2006 , Nguyen & El-Serag 2010 ). Chronic low-grade inflammation and

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Jaume Folch, Ignacio Pedrós, Iván Patraca, Francesc Sureda, Fèlix Junyent, Carlos Beas-Zarate, Ester Verdaguer, Mercè Pallàs, Carme Auladell and Antoni Camins

targets regulated by Lep such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which is a neurotrophin also involved in hypothalamic food intake regulation and represents a potential target for developing new anti-obesity therapies. Furthermore, cytokines such

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R Buettner, K G Parhofer, M Woenckhaus, C E Wrede, L A Kunz-Schughart, J Schölmerich and L C Bollheimer

Introduction The coincidence of obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension and dyslipidemia is commonly referred to as the ‘metabolic syndrome’. This condition affects approximately 20–40% of the population in the industrialized

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Ying Zhang, Mingtong Xu, Shaoling Zhang, Li Yan, Chuan Yang, Wensheng Lu, Yan Li and Hua Cheng

Introduction Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is tightly linked to obesity, which is characterized by hyperlipidemia and elevated circulating free fatty acids (FFAs; Kashyap et al. 2003 , Moller & Kaufman 2005 ). Long-chain FFAs have