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J Jason Collier, Tim E Sparer, Michael D Karlstad and Susan J Burke

that regulate cellular viability, influence immune cell recruitment, impact glucose-stimulated calcium dynamics and eventually reduce maximal glucose-mediated insulin secretion. The end result is an overall diminution in either insulin-positive cell

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Rodolfo Niño Fong, Zahra Fatehi-Hassanabad, Simon C Lee, Hongfang Lu, Michael B Wheeler and Catherine B Chan

is still unclear. In pancreatic β-cells, increased UCP2 expression is associated with suppression of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion ( Chan et al . 1999 , 2001 ) and mediates the negative effects of superoxide on insulin secretion ( Krauss et

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Qun Cheng, Weipin Dong, Lei Qian, Jingcheng Wu and Yongde Peng

muscle cell (VSMC) maturation ( Van der Veer et al . 2005 ). A recent study reported that visfatin-deficient heterozygous (visfatin +/−) female mice showed a moderately impaired glucose tolerance and a reduced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion

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C Ruth González, María J Vázquez, Miguel López and Carlos Diéguez

) prevents high-fat diet-induced obesity, increased basal insulin level, enhanced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, and improved peripheral insulin sensitivity; and c) ghrelin modulates key hypothalamic neuropeptide systems, such as agouti-related protein

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Stacey N Walters, Jude Luzuriaga, Jeng Yie Chan, Shane T Grey and D Ross Laybutt

)); Fig. 3B ), ion channels important for the stimulation of insulin secretion (the pore-forming subunit of the ATP-sensitive K + channel ( Kir6.2 ( Kcnj11 )) and a sarco/ER Ca 2 + -ATPase pump ( Serca2b ( Atp2a2 )); Fig. 3C ), the free fatty acid

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Hitoshi Iida, Takeshi Ogihara, Mun-kyeong Min, Akemi Hara, Yeong Gi Kim, Kyoko Fujimaki, Motoyuki Tamaki, Yoshio Fujitani, Hail Kim and Hirotaka Watada

to secrete appropriate amounts of insulin; therefore, disruption of insulin release causes glucose intolerance. The capacity of insulin secretion from a pancreas is governed by its β-cell mass and the capacity of each β cell to release insulin. Type 1

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Nils Wierup, Frank Sundler and R Scott Heller

released from ghrelin cells within the islets could act as a paracrine inhibitor of insulin secretion. Although reports showing that ghrelin inhibits insulin secretion predominate, it should be mentioned that a few reports have shown stimulatory effects

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Cyrus C Martin, Brian P Flemming, Yingda Wang, James K Oeser and Richard M O'Brien

glucokinase could create a substrate cycle and therefore modulate β cell glycolytic flux and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion ( Newgard et al . 2002 ). Indeed, recent genetic data also suggest that variations in IGRP expression and/or activity are linked

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K Lindberg, S G Rønn, D Tornehave, H Richter, J A Hansen, J Rømer, M Jackerott and N Billestrup

demonstrated in mice deficient in the PRL receptor. These mice have a smaller β-cell mass and lower insulin mRNA and insulin content as well as blunted insulin secretion in response to glucose stimulation when compared with their wild-type littermates

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Andrea Weckman, Antonio Di Ieva, Fabio Rotondo, Luis V Syro, Leon D Ortiz, Kalman Kovacs and Michael D Cusimano

regulation of blood glucose levels ( Hartley et al . 2009 ). Elevated glucose levels stimulate insulin secretion from B-cells. Insulin then acts at fat, liver and muscle cells to induce absorption of glucose from the bloodstream or to stop hepatic glucose