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Richard C Lindsey, Charles H Rundle and Subburaman Mohan

network of signals regulating these cells and their functions is complex. Indeed, there are many growth factors that contribute to the regulation of skeletal development. Two growth factor signaling pathways that exert many effects on skeletal development

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Carrie S Shemanko

( Fig. 2 ), one of which overlaps with the Box-1 domain, although the interactions are not necessarily mutually exclusive ( Haxholm et al . 2015 ). These lipid-interacting domains (LIDs) may function to focus on signal transduction or have another role

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Pitchai Balakumar and Gowraganahalli Jagadeesh

interactions with the receptor determinants for ligand-binding facilitating the conformational rearrangements leading to activation and signal transduction. The agonist receptor interactions play a crucial role both in determination of the functional

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Jun Zhou, Qilong Wang, Ye Ding and Ming-Hui Zou

resistance remain to be determined. The insulin signaling transduction cascade initiated by insulin binding to its receptor causing receptor autophosphorylation and tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) subsequently activating

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Sonia Ciarmatori, Daniela Kiepe, Anke Haarmann, Ulrike Huegel and Burkhard Tönshoff

downstream signal transduction pathways ( Parrizas et al. 1997 , Tsakiridis et al. 2001 ). Two canonical pathways, the phosphatidylinositol-3 (PI-3)-kinase and the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MAPK/ERK)1

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Juliane Dinter, Jessica Mühlhaus, Simon Friedrich Jacobi, Carolin Leonie Wienchol, Maxi Cöster, Jaroslawna Meister, Carolin Stephanie Hoefig, Anne Müller, Josef Köhrle, Annette Grüters, Heiko Krude, Jens Mittag, Torsten Schöneberg, Gunnar Kleinau and Heike Biebermann

(GPCRs) has been demonstrated to lead to uncoupling of the ADRA2A signal transduction pathway ( Vilardaga et al . 2008 ). To test both possibilities, we characterized the signal transduction of ADRA2A and ADRA2A/TAAR1 hetero-oligomers in response to 3-T1

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Ying Ying, Huazhang Zhu, Zhen Liang, Xiaosong Ma and Shiwei Li

metabolism . Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1044 1 – 12 . ( doi:10.1016/0005-2760(90)90211-F ). Miller JR Hocking AM Brown JD Moon RT 1999 Mechanism and function of signal transduction by the Wnt/β-catenin and Wnt/Ca 2+ pathways . Oncogene

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Michael Welsh, Maria Jamalpour, Guangxiang Zang and Björn Åkerblom

Lindholm CK Kriz V Welsh M 2003 The FRK/RAK-SHB signaling cascade: a versatile signal-transduction pathway that regulates cell survival, differentiation and proliferation . Current Molecular Medicine 3 313 – 324 . ( doi:10

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Gunnar Kleinau, Anne Müller and Heike Biebermann

et al . 2006 a , Lohse 2010 ), G-protein coupling selectivity, and signal transduction mechanisms (reviewed in Bouvier 2001 , George et al . 2002 ), or for cell surface expression ( Uberti et al . 2005 ). Functional cross-regulation of G

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Michael Eisold, Mohammad Asim, Hanna Eskelinen, Thomas Linke and Aria Baniahmad

other signal transduction pathways could potentially be involved in regulating corepressor action on CPA bound AR. We have recently shown that blocking Src kinase activity in PCa cells inhibit AR transactivation function ( Asim et al . 2008 ) presumably