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L A Bach

IGFBPs inhibit tumorigenesis, it appeared that IGFBP-2 predominantly promotes this process ( Russo et al . 2015 ). Circulating IGFBP-2 levels correlated with established tumor markers and aggressiveness in many cancers including prostate, breast and

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J M Torres and E Ortega

dimorphic functions of the male, such as in the development of prostate and external genitalia and in the differentiation of the CNS ( Russell & Wilson 1994 , Poletti et al. 1998 b ). In order to determine the brain regions as well as the nerve

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Joanna E Burdette

overexpression of a cell surface receptor is a major breakthrough for in vivo imaging agents. Tyrosine kinase receptors are another popular cell surface target for the treatment of both breast and prostate cancers. Many generations of preclinical epidermal

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Dunyong Tan and Ameae M Walker

forms have been associated with disease. For example, increased LF PRL receptor expression is associated with early prostate disease ( Leav et al . 1999 ), and activation of signaling molecules downstream of the LF PRL receptor is associated with higher

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Kyle T Helzer, Christopher Hooper, Shigeki Miyamoto and Elaine T Alarid

regulator of unliganded NR protein expression ( Fig. 1 ), which has relevance in scenarios in breast and prostate cancer where therapies such as aromatase inhibitors and abiraterone decrease hormone production yet maintain the unliganded receptor. Regulated

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C Bolduc, M Larose, M Yoshioka, P Ye, P Belleau, C Labrie, J Morissette, V Raymond, F Labrie and J St-Amand

three gonadectomized (GDX) groups. DHT (0.1 mg) was injected 3 h (DHT3h) and 24 h (DHT24h) prior to killing in groups 3 and 4. The dose of DHT selected was the smallest dose that could restore the prostate weight of GDX mice to the level of intact mice

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Michael A Gentile, Pascale V Nantermet, Robert L Vogel, Robert Phillips, Daniel Holder, Paul Hodor, Chun Cheng, Hongyue Dai, Leonard P Freedman and William J Ray

low compared with reproductive tissues such as the prostate and levator ani muscle ( Antonio et al . 1999 , Monks et al . 2004 ). Nevertheless, castration in rats reduces contractile force in muscles of the hindlimb ( Brown et al . 2001 ) and

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Jun Yang and Morag J Young

and prostate cancer. In the case of breast cancer, a few studies have found elevated levels of steroid receptor RNA activator and amplified in breast cancer-1 (AIB1, also known as SRC-3), suggesting that raised coactivator levels may increase tumor

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Raphaela Rid, Martin Wagner, Christina J Maier, Harald Hundsberger, Helmut Hintner, Johann W Bauer and Kamil Önder

concomitant pathways (summarized in Fig. 6 ). The most important examples encompass primary, immortalized, or malignant prostate ( Krishnan et al . 2004 , Peehl et al . 2004 , Kovalenko et al . 2010 , Wang et al . 2011 ), colon ( Wood et al . 2004

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Samantha Gardner, Emmanouil Stavrou, Patricia E Rischitor, Elena Faccenda and Adam J Pawson

adenosine monophosphate/protein kinase A pathway . Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 181 15 – 26 . Chesire DR Isaacs WB 2003 β-Catenin signaling in prostate cancer: an early perspective . Endocrine-Related Cancer 10 537 – 560 . Cook D