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Limin Tian, Luyan Zhang, Jing Liu, Tiankang Guo, Cuixia Gao and Jing Ni

accelerate AS. The central events of AS include endothelial dysfunction ( Atochin & Huang 2010 ), inflammation, and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) proliferation. It is worth noting that endothelial cell dysfunction is generally accepted as an early step

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Ilaria Cimmino, Francesco Oriente, Vittoria D’Esposito, Domenico Liguoro, Pasquale Liguoro, Maria Rosaria Ambrosio, Serena Cabaro, Francesco D’Andrea, Francesco Beguinot, Pietro Formisano and Rossella Valentino

inflammation in mature mammary adipocytes and in SVF cells. Mature adipocytes (A) and SVF cells (B), isolated from mammary adipose tissue biopsies ( n  = 6), were grown in suspension and treated with 0.1 nM BPA for 24 h and 48 h. IL-8, MCP1α and IL-6 mRNA

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Eva Tudurí, Monica Imbernon, Rene Javier Hernández-Bautista, Marta Tojo, Johan Fernø, Carlos Diéguez and Rubén Nogueiras

-Hyiaman et al . 2008 ). In addition, activation of CB1 increases lipogenesis and inflammation and reduces lipolysis, in the white adipose tissue (WAT) ( Silvestri & Di Marzo 2013 ). Furthermore, CB1 activation impairs insulin sensitivity, as evidenced by

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Man Huang, Duraisamy Kempuraj, Nikoletta Papadopoulou, Taxiarchis Kourelis, Jill Donelan, Akrivi Manola and Theoharis C Theoharides

higher in apolipoprotein E (Apo E) knockout mice that develop atherosclerosis ( Huang et al . 2003 ). Local inflammation is now recognized as a key component of coronary artery disease (CAD; Packard & Libby 2008 ). The proinflammatory cytokine IL-6 is

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Sufang Chen, Wei Wei, Minjie Chen, Xiaobo Qin, Lianglin Qiu, Li Zhang, Yuhao Zhang, Qi Cao and Zhekang Ying

Introduction With a focused effort of more than two decades, it has been well established that inflammation plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus ( Hotamisligil 2017 ). Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) is one

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Penny Ahlstrom, Esther Rai, Suharto Chakma, Hee Ho Cho, Palanivel Rengasamy and Gary Sweeney

, there is now a strong body of evidence, which clearly indicates that various factors can elevate ER stress in skeletal muscle leading to insulin resistance. For example, inflammation or high-fat diet can lead to ER stress ( Dai et al. 2016 , Kwak et

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Jiayu Jin, Xinhong Wang, Xiuling Zhi and Dan Meng

, making chromatin ‘accessible’ or ‘inaccessible’ for transcription factor binding and therefore influencing gene expression (e.g. P66 , MMP-9 , IL-6 , Rac1 ). This series of events leads to ‘metabolic memory’, oxidative stress, inflammation

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D F Garcia-Diaz, J Campion, F I Milagro, N Boque, M J Moreno-Aliaga and J A Martinez

inflammation and hyperleptinemia ( Vincent & Taylor 2006 ). Thus, induced monocyte migration to the adipose tissue and high secretion levels of some WAT-secreted adipokines are directly implicated in the obesity-associated ROS overproduction. This fact links

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Xinxin Xiang, Wenjiao An, Changtao Jiang, Jing Zhao, Xian Wang, Guang Sun, Yin Li and Weizhen Zhang

Introduction Inflammation in adipose tissue is intimately linked with the onset and progression of insulin resistance. The link between insulin resistance and obesity is not completely understood. Recent studies suggest that insulin sensitivity is

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Jie Sun, Yan Liu, Jinhui Yu, Jin Wu, Wenting Gao, Liyuan Ran, Rujiao Jiang, Meihua Guo, Dongyu Han, Bo Liu, Ning Wang, Youwei Li, He Huang, Li Zeng, Ying Gao, Xin Li and Yingjie Wu

facilitates the development of fatty liver ( Malhi & Kaufman 2011 ), inflammation ( Cao et al. 2016 ), apoptosis, autophagy disorder ( Li et al. 2015 ) and IR. Therefore, amelioration of ER stress stands as a crucial point to avert IR. In the 6-week