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Eva Tudurí, Monica Imbernon, Rene Javier Hernández-Bautista, Marta Tojo, Johan Fernø, Carlos Diéguez and Rubén Nogueiras

-Hyiaman et al . 2008 ). In addition, activation of CB1 increases lipogenesis and inflammation and reduces lipolysis, in the white adipose tissue (WAT) ( Silvestri & Di Marzo 2013 ). Furthermore, CB1 activation impairs insulin sensitivity, as evidenced by

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Man Huang, Duraisamy Kempuraj, Nikoletta Papadopoulou, Taxiarchis Kourelis, Jill Donelan, Akrivi Manola and Theoharis C Theoharides

higher in apolipoprotein E (Apo E) knockout mice that develop atherosclerosis ( Huang et al . 2003 ). Local inflammation is now recognized as a key component of coronary artery disease (CAD; Packard & Libby 2008 ). The proinflammatory cytokine IL-6 is

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Sufang Chen, Wei Wei, Minjie Chen, Xiaobo Qin, Lianglin Qiu, Li Zhang, Yuhao Zhang, Qi Cao and Zhekang Ying

Introduction With a focused effort of more than two decades, it has been well established that inflammation plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus ( Hotamisligil 2017 ). Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) is one

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Penny Ahlstrom, Esther Rai, Suharto Chakma, Hee Ho Cho, Palanivel Rengasamy and Gary Sweeney

, there is now a strong body of evidence, which clearly indicates that various factors can elevate ER stress in skeletal muscle leading to insulin resistance. For example, inflammation or high-fat diet can lead to ER stress ( Dai et al. 2016 , Kwak et

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Jie Sun, Yan Liu, Jinhui Yu, Jin Wu, Wenting Gao, Liyuan Ran, Rujiao Jiang, Meihua Guo, Dongyu Han, Bo Liu, Ning Wang, Youwei Li, He Huang, Li Zeng, Ying Gao, Xin Li and Yingjie Wu

facilitates the development of fatty liver ( Malhi & Kaufman 2011 ), inflammation ( Cao et al. 2016 ), apoptosis, autophagy disorder ( Li et al. 2015 ) and IR. Therefore, amelioration of ER stress stands as a crucial point to avert IR. In the 6-week

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D F Garcia-Diaz, J Campion, F I Milagro, N Boque, M J Moreno-Aliaga and J A Martinez

inflammation and hyperleptinemia ( Vincent & Taylor 2006 ). Thus, induced monocyte migration to the adipose tissue and high secretion levels of some WAT-secreted adipokines are directly implicated in the obesity-associated ROS overproduction. This fact links

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Jiayu Jin, Xinhong Wang, Xiuling Zhi and Dan Meng

, making chromatin ‘accessible’ or ‘inaccessible’ for transcription factor binding and therefore influencing gene expression (e.g. P66 , MMP-9 , IL-6 , Rac1 ). This series of events leads to ‘metabolic memory’, oxidative stress, inflammation

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Xinxin Xiang, Wenjiao An, Changtao Jiang, Jing Zhao, Xian Wang, Guang Sun, Yin Li and Weizhen Zhang

Introduction Inflammation in adipose tissue is intimately linked with the onset and progression of insulin resistance. The link between insulin resistance and obesity is not completely understood. Recent studies suggest that insulin sensitivity is

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Stacey N Walters, Jude Luzuriaga, Jeng Yie Chan, Shane T Grey and D Ross Laybutt

antioxidant and pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA in islet grafts Oxidative stress and inflammation have been implicated in β-cell failure in diabetes ( Laybutt et al . 2002 , Poitout & Robertson 2008 , Donath & Shoelson 2011 , Gregor & Hotamisligil 2011

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Nikoletta G Papadopoulou, Lauren Oleson, Duraisamy Kempuraj, Jill Donelan, Curtis L Cetrulo and Theoharis C Theoharides

CRH ( Esposito et al. 2002 ). Such findings have implicated stress and mast cells in brain inflammation, including multiple sclerosis ( Goodin et al. 1999 , Mei-Tal et al. 1970 , Theoharides & Cochrane 2004 ), but did not prove that CRH had a