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Russell A Prough, Barbara J Clark and Carolyn M Klinge

shows some of the pathways and enzymes by which DHEA is metabolized to steroids that bind ER and AR. AKR1C4 is liver specific, whereas AKR1C3 is expressed in many tissues, including the adrenal, brain, kidney, liver, lung mammary gland, placenta, small

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Hubert Vaudry

comprehensive series of review articles that illustrate the molecular and functional evolution of diverse families of neuropeptide GPCRs that are involved in the regulation of essential physiological functions, i.e. reproduction, growth, stress response, energy

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Jun Yang and Morag J Young

ER Joels M Holsboer F 2005 Stress and the brain: from adaptation to disease . Nature Reviews. Neuroscience 6 463 – 475 . Knutti D Kralli A 2001 PGC-1, a versatile coactivator . Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism 12 360

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Ana Pestana, João Vinagre, Manuel Sobrinho-Simões and Paula Soares

pathways and cellular processes Besides the major TERT regulators and targets previously described, several roles for TERT have been described in other signalling pathways and cellular processes. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress transiently activates

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Xianglan Sun, Ling Gao, Hung-Yu Chien, Wan-Chun Li and Jiajun Zhao

. 1994 ). AMPK functions as a heterotrimer composed of one catalytic subunit (α) and two regulatory subunits (β and γ) as its activity is regulated by increased intracellular AMP:ATP ratio in cells under metabolic stress (e.g. hypoxia, heat shock, and

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Choa Park, Joonwoo Park, Myeong Kuk Shim, Mee-Ra Rhyu, Byung-Koo Yoon, Kyung Sook Kim and YoungJoo Lee

(ERs), which function as ligand-activated transcription factors in the regulation of gene expression. Two ER isoforms exist: ERα and ERβ ( Mangelsdorf et al. 1995 , Kuiper et al. 1996 ). Whereas the physiological effects of ERα have been studied

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Louise K Metcalfe, Greg C Smith and Nigel Turner

responses, is known as IR. Although incompletely defined, a number of different mechanisms have been proposed to promote the development of IR, including overproduction of reactive oxygen species, dysfunction of mitochondria, induction of ER stress and

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Anne-Marie O’Carroll, Stephen J Lolait and Gillian M Howell

with neuroendocrine, behavioural and thermoregulatory actions ( Jaszberenyi et al. 2004 ) including regulation of body fluid homeostasis and stress responses ( Reaux et al. 2001 , O’Carroll & Lolait 2003 , O’Carroll et al. 2003 ), and

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Verónica García-Carpizo, Lidia Ruiz-Llorente, Mario Fraga and Ana Aranda

hormone antagonists. Hypermethylation can selectively silence multiple promoters of steroid receptors in hormone-dependent cancers, including ovarian, endometrial, breast, and prostate cancer. Aberrant DNA methylation of the promoter region of estrogen (ER

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Silvia Senesi, Paola Marcolongo, Ivana Manini, Rosella Fulceri, Vincenzo Sorrentino, Miklós Csala, Gábor Bánhegyi and Angelo Benedetti

might not be sufficient to allow the reductase activity. Alternatively, the overexpressed HSD11B1 might not be properly targeted to the inner face of the ER membrane but directly or indirectly – in ER-derived bodies resulting from an ER overloading/stress