It is known that decreased apoptosis of thyrocytes may be involved in the formation of goiters in patients with Graves’ disease, and growth factors are involved in regulating the size of the thyroid gland. The purpose of our study was to investigate mRNA and protein levels of an antiapoptotic protein, namely, Fas-associated death domain-like interleukin-1-converting enzyme (FLICE)-inhibitory protein (FLIP). The results showed that in FRTL thyroid cells, treatment with IGF-I upregulated mRNA and protein levels of FLIP in a dose-dependant manner. While a specific nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) inhibitor, BAY11-7082, blocked this effect. Further study demonstrated that IGF-I induced the DNA-binding activity of NF-κB in association with decreased expression of the NF-κB inhibitory protein IκBα . These findings implied that IGF-I increased FLIP expression by enhancing the activation of NF-κB in FRTL thyroid cells. Using a specific phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, LY294002, we also found that PI3K was involved in the pathway by which IGF-I activated NF-κB and increased FLIP expression. When treated with IGF-I and LY294002, decreased NF-κB DNA binding activity and increased expression of IκBα protein were detected in cultured thyroid cells, which further confirmed that NF-κB was under the control of the PI3K pathway. Taken together, our results suggest that IGF-I regulates the expression of FLIP in FRTL cells by activating the PI3K/NF-κB cascade.
Meng Ren, Qingbo Guan, Xia Zhong, Bendi Gong, Ying Sun, Wei Xin, Jun Guo, Hai Wang, Ling Gao and Jiajun Zhao
Siyi Zhu, Hongchen He, Chengfei Gao, Guojing Luo, Ying Xie, Haiming Wang, Li Tian, Xiang Chen, Xijie Yu and Chengqi He
We examined the effects of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) and interleukin-6 (IL6) gene knockout in preserving the bone loss induced by ovariectomy (OVX) and the mechanisms involved in bone metabolism. Twenty female wild-type (WT), TNFα-knockout (TNFα−/−) or IL6-knockout (IL6−/−) mice aged 12 weeks were sham-operated (SHAM) or subjected to OVX and killed after 4 weeks. Bone mass and skeletal microarchitecture were determined using micro-CT. Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) from all three groups (WT, TNFα−/− and IL6−/−) were induced to differentiate into osteoblasts or osteoclasts and treated with 17-β-estradiol. Bone metabolism was assessed by histological analysis, serum analyses and qRT-PCR. OVX successfully induced a high turnover in all mice, but a repair effect was observed in TNFα−/− and IL6−/− mice. The ratio of femoral trabecular bone volume to tissue volume, trabecular number and trabecular thickness were significantly decreased in WT mice subjected to OVX, but increased in TNFα−/− mice (1.62, 1.34, 0.27-fold respectively; P < 0.01) and IL6−/− mice (1.34, 0.80, 0.22-fold respectively; P < 0.01). Furthermore, we observed a 29.6% increase in the trabecular number in TNFα−/− mice when compared to the IL6−/− mice. Both, TNFα−/− and IL6−/− BMSCs exhibited decreased numbers of TRAP-positive cells and an increase in ALP-positive cells, with or without E2 treatment (P < 0.05). While the knockout of TNFα or IL6 significantly upregulated mRNA expressions of osteoblast-related genes (Runx2 and Col1a1) and downregulated osteoclast-related mRNA for TRAP, MMP9 and CTSK in vivo and in vitro, TNFα knockout appeared to have roles beyond IL6 knockout in upregulating Col1a1 mRNA expression and downregulating mRNA expressions of WNT-related genes (DKK1 and Sost) and TNF-related activation-induced genes (TRAF6). TNFα seemed to be more potentially invasive in inhibiting bone formation and enhancing TRAF6-mediated osteoclastogenesis than IL6, implying that the regulatory mechanisms of TNFα and IL6 in bone metabolism may be different.
Jie Sun, Yan Liu, Jinhui Yu, Jin Wu, Wenting Gao, Liyuan Ran, Rujiao Jiang, Meihua Guo, Dongyu Han, Bo Liu, Ning Wang, Youwei Li, He Huang, Li Zeng, Ying Gao, Xin Li and Yingjie Wu
Astragalus polysaccharide (APS) is the main component of Astragalus membranaceus, an anti-diabetic herb being used for thousands of years in Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). In this study, we aimed to evaluate the impact of APS on hepatic insulin signaling, autophagy and ER stress response in high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced insulin resistance (IR) mice. APS was intra-gastrically administrated and metformin was used as a control medicine. Apart from monitoring the changes in the important parameters of IR progression, the gene and protein expression of the key factors marking the state of hepatic ER stress and autophagic flux were examined. We found that, largely comparable to the metformin regime, APS treatment resulted in an overall improvement of IR, as indicated by better control of body weight and blood glucose/lipid levels, recovery of liver functions and regained insulin sensitivity. In particular, the excessive and pro-apoptotic ER stress response and inhibition of autophagy, as a result of prolonged HFD exposure, were significantly corrected by APS administration, indicating a switch of the cellular fate in favor of cell survival. Using the HepG2/IR cell model, we demonstrated that APS modulated the insulin-initiated phosphorylation cascades in a similar manner to metformin. This study provides a rationale for exploiting the insulin-sensitizing potential of APS, which has a therapeutic performance almost equivalent to metformin, to enrich our options in the treatment of IR.