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Yalan Hu Endocrine Laboratory, Department of Clinical Chemistry, Amsterdam Gastroenterology, Endocrinology & Metabolism, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands

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Eveline Bruinstroop Department of Endocrinology, Amsterdam Gastroenterology, Endocrinology & Metabolism, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands

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Anthony N Hollenberg Department of Medicine, Boston University Chobanian & Avedisian School of Medicine, Boston Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

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Eric Fliers Department of Endocrinology, Amsterdam Gastroenterology, Endocrinology & Metabolism, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands

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Anita Boelen Endocrine Laboratory, Department of Clinical Chemistry, Amsterdam Gastroenterology, Endocrinology & Metabolism, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands

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WD40 repeat-containing proteins play a key role in many cellular functions including signal transduction, protein degradation, and apoptosis. The WD40 domain is highly conserved, and its typical structure is a β-propeller consisting of 4–8 blades which probably serves as a scaffold for protein–protein interaction. Some WD40 repeat-containing proteins form part of the corepressor complex of nuclear hormone receptors, a family of ligand-dependent transcription factors that play a central role in the regulation of gene transcription. This explains their involvement in endocrine physiology and pathology. In the present review, we first touch upon the structure of WD40 repeat-containing proteins. Next, we describe our current understanding of the role of WD40 domain-containing proteins in nuclear receptor signaling, e.g., as corepressor or coactivator. In the final part of this review, we focus on WD40 domain-containing proteins that are associated with endocrine pathologies. These pathologies vary from isolated dysfunction of one endocrine axis, e.g., congenital isolated central hypothyroidism, to more complex congenital syndromes comprising endocrine phenotypes, such as the Triple-A syndrome.

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Yalan Hu Endocrine Laboratory, Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Amsterdam Gastroenterology, Endocrinology & Metabolism Research Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

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Gemma F Codner The Mary Lyon Centre at MRC Harwell, Harwell Campus, Oxfordshire, UK

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Michelle Stewart The Mary Lyon Centre at MRC Harwell, Harwell Campus, Oxfordshire, UK

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Susanne E La Fleur Endocrine Laboratory, Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Amsterdam Gastroenterology, Endocrinology & Metabolism Research Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Amsterdam Neuroscience, Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

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Paul A S van Trotsenburg Amsterdam Gastroenterology, Endocrinology & Metabolism Research Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Emma Children’s Hospital, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

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Eric Fliers Amsterdam Gastroenterology, Endocrinology & Metabolism Research Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Department of Endocrinology, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

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Raoul C Hennekam Department of Pediatrics, Emma Children’s Hospital, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

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Anita Boelen Endocrine Laboratory, Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Amsterdam Gastroenterology, Endocrinology & Metabolism Research Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Amsterdam Reproduction & Development Research Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

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Humans with the mutation Y509C in transducin beta like 1 X-linked (TBL1X HGNC ID HGNC:11585) have been reported to present with the combination of central congenital hypothyroidism and impaired hearing. TBL1X belongs to the WD40 repeat-containing protein family, is part of NCoR and SMRT corepressor complexes, and thereby involved in thyroid hormone signaling. In order to investigate the effects of the Y509C mutation in TBL1X on cellular thyroid hormone action, we aimed to generate a hemizygous male mouse cohort carrying the Tbl1x Y459C mutation which is equivalent to the human TBL1X Y509C mutation using CRISPR/Cas9 technology. Hemizygous male mice were small at birth and inactive. Their life span (median life span 93 days) was very short compared with heterozygous female mice (survived to >200 days with no welfare issues). About 52% of mice did not survive to weaning (133 mice). Of the remaining 118 mice, only 8 were hemizygous males who were unable to mate whereby it was impossible to generate homozygous female mice. In conclusion, the Tbl1x Y459C mutation in male mice has a marked negative effect on birth weight, survival, and fertility of male mice. The present findings are unexpected as they are in contrast to the mild phenotype in human males carrying the equivalent TBL1X Y509C mutation.

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