Telmisartan provides renal benefit at all stages of the renal continuum in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. This research is to investigate the effect of telmisartan on kidney function in diabetic rats and to identify the underlying molecular mechanisms. Diabetic rats were divided into vehicle group, low dosage (TeL) group, and high dosage of telmisartan (TeH) group. We performed Illumina RatRef-12 Expression BeadChip gene array experiments. We found 3-months of treatment with telmisartan significantly decreased 24-h urinary albumin, serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, and increased creatinine clearance rate. Kidney hypertrophy and glomerular mesangial matrix expansion were ameliorated. The glomeruli from the TeH group had 1541 genes with significantly changed expression (554 increased, 987 decreased). DAVID (Database for annotation, visualization and Integrated discovery) analyses showed that the most enriched term was ‘mitochondrion’ (Gene Ontology (GO:0005739)) in all 67 GO functional categories. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analyses indicated that all differentially expressed genes included seven KEGG pathways. Of those pathways, four are closely related to the oxidative phosphorylation pathway. Quantitative real-time PCR verified that the H+ transporting mitochondrial F1 complex, beta subunit (Atp5b), cytochrome c oxidase subunit VIc (Cox6c), and NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) Fe-S protein 3 (Ndufs3) were significantly downregulated both in TeL and TeH groups, while nephrosis 1 homolog (Nphs1) and nephrosis 2 homolog (Nphs2) were significantly upregulated. The increased expression of malonaldehyde and NDUFS3 in the glomeruli of diabetic rats was attenuated by telmisartan. The other significantly changed pathway we found was the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) signaling pathway. Our data suggest that telmisartan can improve kidney function in diabetic rats. The mechanism may be involved in mitochondrion oxidative phosphorylation, the PPAR-γ pathway, and the slit diaphragm.
Qian Zhang, Xinhua Xiao, Ming Li, Wenhui Li, Miao Yu, Huabing Zhang, Xiaofang Sun, Lili Mao and Hongding Xiang
Yun-Qing Zhu, Yun Hu, Ke He, Na Li, Peng Jiang, Yu-Qin Pan, Hong Zhou and Xiao-Ming Mao
The follicles are the minimal functional unit of the thyroid; the morphology and the function of each follicle can vary significantly. However, the reasons for the apparent follicular heterogeneity are poorly understood. Some tissue-resident regulatory T cells (Tregs) have a special phenotype that expresses unique molecules related to local tissue and regulates the tissue functions. The aim of this study was to identify the phenotype of thyroid Tregs and the roles of thyroid Tregs in thyroid physiological regulation. Thyroid tissue and peripheral blood samples were obtained from patients with benign thyroid nodules. Microarray-based gene expression, flow cytometry, immunofluorescence microscopy, and functional analysis of thyroid Tregs were performed. Here, we demonstrated that human thyroid Tregs expressed high level of thyroglobulin (Tg), both gene and protein. The immunofluorescence microscopy of thyroid section showed that the FOXP3+Tg+ cells concentrated in some of the thyroid follicles, at the side of the thyroid follicle. The peripheral blood Tregs expressed minimal levels of Tg, and low levels of Tg could effectively induce peripheral blood Tregs to express Tg, which was independent of thyrotropin simulation. Furthermore, the Tg secreted freely from thyroid Tregs that negatively regulated some thyroid-related genes expression. Our results revealed that the thyroid Tregs was a distinct population of Tregs, which expressed high level of Tg. The thyroid Tregs regulate thyroid function by Tg that is paracrine from the cells.