Adenosine deaminase (ADA) regulates cellular levels of adenosine and deoxyadenosine, and 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) induces ADA mRNA in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. IGF-I also induces ADA gene expression in these cells, and induction of this response through IGF activation of estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) was further investigated. IGF and other polypeptide growth factors induce reporter gene expression in MCF-7 cells cotransfected with ERalpha expression plasmid and pADA211, a construct containing the -211 to +11 region of the ADA gene promoter which is required for high basal and E(2)-inducible activity. Deletion analysis of this promoter demonstrates that IGF activates ERalpha/Sp1 interactions with multiple GC-rich sites in the promoter and this response is abrogated in cells transfected with ERalpha containing mutations at Ser(118) or Ser(163). IGF induces both MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) and PI3-K (phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase) phosphorylation cascades in MCF-7 cells; however, using a series of inhibitors and dominant negative constructs, our results show that induction of ADA by IGF activation of ERalpha/Sp1 is dependent on the MAPK signaling pathway.
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W Xie, R Duan, and S Safe
C-L Hsieh, Z Xie, Z-Y Liu, J E Green, W D Martin, M W Datta, F Yeung, D Pan, and L W K Chung
Numerous mouse models of prostate carcinogenesis have been developed, but hitherto there has been no model in which the prostate gland could be imaged in live animals. The transgenic model generated here targeted mouse prostate gland using a firefly luciferase enzyme under the control of a small but highly active and specific supra prostate-specific antigen (sPSA) promoter. We evaluated postnatal prostate development, involution and androgen-induced restoration of prostate growth in adult transgenic mice using bioluminescence imaging. Results of our study showed that: (i) the prostate gland of male offspring did not yield a significant bioluminescence signal until after sexual maturity. Luciferase was detected in the luminal epithelial cells of the ventral and dorsolateral lobes of the prostate gland and caput epididymis, with little or no activity in 18 other organs evaluated. (ii) While a constant high level of bioluminescence was detected in the mouse prostate from 5 to 35 weeks of age, a slight drop in bioluminescence was detected at 36 to 54 weeks. (iii) Upon castration, the luciferase activity signal associated with mouse prostate detected by a cooled charge-coupled device camera was dramatically reduced. This signal could be rapidly restored to pre-castration levels after androgen administration. Androgen-induced luciferase activity subsided to nearly basal levels 5 days following the last injection. These data demonstrate that a bioluminescent mouse model with luciferase activity restricted to the prostate gland under the control of a (sPSA) promoter can be used on a real-time basis in live animals to investigate the development and responsiveness of the prostate gland to exogenously administered androgen. This model can be extended to detect the responsiveness of the prostate gland to therapy and used as a founder strain to visualize tumors in hosts with different genetic backgrounds.