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Vincent Giguère and Ronald M Evans
The landmark 1987 discovery of the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) came as a surprise, uncovering a genomic kinship between the fields of vitamin A biology and steroid receptors. This stunning breakthrough triggered a cascade of studies to deconstruct the roles played by the RAR and its natural and synthetic ligands in embryonic development, skin, growth, physiology, vision, and disease as well as providing a template to elucidate the molecular mechanisms by which nuclear receptors regulate gene expression. In this review, written from historic and personal perspectives, we highlight the milestones that led to the discovery of the RAR and the subsequent studies that enriched our knowledge of the molecular mechanisms by which a low-abundant dietary compound could be so essential to the generation and maintenance of life itself.
Mathieu Vernier and Vincent Giguère
Aging is a degenerative process that results from the accumulation of cellular and tissue lesions, leading progressively to organ dysfunction and death. Although the biological basis of human aging remains unclear, a large amount of data points to deregulated mitochondrial function as a central regulator of this process. Mounting years of research on aging support the notion that the engendered age-related decline of mitochondria is associated with alterations in key pathways that regulate mitochondrial biology. Particularly, several studies in the last decade have emphasized the importance of the estrogen-related receptor (ERR) family of nuclear receptors, master regulators of mitochondrial function, and their transcriptional coactivators PGC-1s in this context. In this review, we summarize key discoveries implicating the PGC-1/ERR axis in age-associated mitochondrial deregulation and tissue dysfunction. Also, we highlight the pharmacological potential of targeting the PGC-1/ERR axis to alleviate the onset of aging and its adverse effects.