Diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) is a chronic and non-healing complication of diabetes that leads to high hospital costs and, in extreme cases, to amputation. Recent studies have reported that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are linked to various diabetes-related symptoms. Thus, we aim to explore the role of lncRNA H19 in the wound healing process following DFU. Fibroblasts were isolated from the ulcer margin tissues of DFU patients, with the expression of lncRNA H19, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) or serum response factor (SRF) altered by lentivirus infection. Next, rat models of DFU induced by high glucose and lipid diet were established, which was also infected with the corresponding lentivirus. The interaction among lncRNA H19, SRF and CTGF was determined. Afterward, cell proliferation and apoptosis, angiogenesis, ECM remodeling and wound healing in DFU tissues were evaluated to explore the effects of lncRNA H19/SRF/CTGF and MAPK signaling pathway on DFU. CTGF was poorly expressed in ulcer tissues from DFU rats and patients. CTGF overexpression was shown to activate the MAPK signaling pathway to promote cell proliferation, ECM remodeling, angiogenesis and wound healing while inhibiting cell apoptosis. lncRNA H19 was validated to elevate CTGF expression by recruiting SRF to the promoter region of CTGF, thus accelerating cell proliferation, ECM remodeling and wound healing while repressing cell apoptosis. Furthermore, MAPK signaling pathway activation is confirmed to be the underlying mechanism behind lncRNA H19/CTGF/SRF-induced results. Thus, lncRNA H19 accelerated wound healing in DFU through elevation of CTGF and activation of the MAPK signaling pathway.
Bo Li, Yue Zhou, Jing Chen, Tingting Wang, Zhijuan Li, Yili Fu, Aixia Zhai, and Changlong Bi
Ting-Ting Zhou, Fei Ma, Xiao-Fan Shi, Xin Xu, Te Du, Xiao-Dan Guo, Gai-Hong Wang, Liang Yu, Vatcharin Rukachaisirikul, Li-Hong Hu, Jing Chen, and Xu Shen
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic metabolic disease with complicated pathogenesis and targeting gluconeogenesis inhibition is a promising strategy for anti-diabetic drug discovery. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are classified as distinct families by heterotrimeric G proteins, primarily including Gαs, Gαi and Gαq. Gαs-coupled GPCRs function potently in the regulation of hepatic gluconeogenesis by activating cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)/protein kinase A (PKA) pathway and Gαi-coupled GPCRs exhibit inhibitory effect on adenylyl cyclase and reduce intracellular cAMP level. However, little is known about the regulation of Gαq-coupled GPCRs in hepatic gluconeogenesis. Here, small-molecule 2-(2,4-dimethoxy-3-methylphenyl)-7-(thiophen-2-yl)-9-(trifluoromethyl)-2,3-dihydropyrido[3′,2′:4,5]thieno[3,2-d]pyrimidin-4(1H)-one (DMT) was determined to suppress hepatic glucose production and reduce mRNA levels of gluconeogenic genes. Treatment of DMT in db/db mice decreased fasting blood glucose and hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c) levels, while improved glucose tolerance and pyruvate tolerance. Mechanism study demonstrated that DMT-inhibited gluconeogenesis by regulating the Gαq/phospholipase C (PLC)/inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate receptor (IP3R)-mediated calcium (Ca2+)/calmodulin (CaM)/phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT)/forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1) signaling pathway. To our knowledge, DMT might be the first reported small molecule able to suppress hepatic gluconeogenesis by regulating Gαq signaling, and our current work has also highlighted the potential of DMT in the treatment of T2DM.
Kamran Ullah, Tanzil Ur Rahman, Hai-Tao Pan, Meng-Xi Guo, Xin-Yan Dong, Juan Liu, Lu-Yang Jin, Yi Cheng, Zhang-Hong Ke, Jun Ren, Xian-Hua Lin, Xiao-Xiao Qiu, Ting-Ting Wang, He-Feng Huang, and Jian-Zhong Sheng
Previous studies have shown that increasing estradiol concentrations had a toxic effect on the embryo and were deleterious to embryo adhesion. In this study, we evaluated the physiological impact of estradiol concentrations on endometrial cells to reveal that serum estradiol levels probably targeted the endometrium in controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) protocols. An attachment model of human choriocarcinoma (JAr) cell spheroids to receptive-phase endometrial epithelial cells and Ishikawa cells treated with different estradiol (10−9 M or 10−7 M) concentrations was developed. Differentially expressed protein profiling of the Ishikawa cells was performed by proteomic analysis. Estradiol at 10−7 M demonstrated a high attachment rate of JAr spheroids to the endometrial cell monolayers. Using iTRAQ coupled with LC–MS/MS, we identified 45 differentially expressed proteins containing 43 significantly upregulated and 2 downregulated proteins in Ishikawa cells treated with 10−7 M estradiol. Differential expression of C3, plasminogen and kininogen-1 by Western blot confirmed the proteomic results. C3, plasminogen and kininogen-1 localization in human receptive endometrial luminal epithelium highlighted the key proteins as possible targets for endometrial receptivity and interception. Ingenuity pathway analysis of differentially expressed proteins exhibited a variety of signaling pathways, including LXR/RXR activation pathway and acute-phase response signaling and upstream regulators (TNF, IL6, Hmgn3 and miR-140-3p) associated with endometrial receptivity. The observed estrogenic effect on differential proteome dynamics in Ishikawa cells indicates that the human endometrium is the probable target for serum estradiol levels in COH cycles. The findings are also important for future functional studies with the identified proteins that may influence embryo implantation.