Liver transthyretin (TTR) synthesis and release are exacerbated in insulin-resistant states but are decreased by exercise training, in relation to the insulin-sensitizing effects of exercise. We hypothesized that TTR knockdown (TTR-KD) may mimic this exercise-induced metabolic improvement and skeletal muscle remodeling. Adeno-associated virus-mediated TTR-KD and control mice were trained for 8 weeks on treadmills. Their metabolism status and exercise capacity were investigated and then compared with sedentary controls. After treadmill training, the mice showed improved glucose and insulin tolerance, hepatic steatosis, and exercise endurance. Sedentary TTR-KD mice displayed metabolic improvements comparable to the improvements in trained mice. Both exercise training and TTR-KD promoted the oxidative myofiber compositions of MyHC I and MyHC IIa in the quadriceps and gastrocnemius skeletal muscles. Furthermore, training and TTR-KD had an additive effect on running performance, accompanied by substantial increases in oxidative myofiber composition, Ca2+-dependent Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) activity, and the downstream expression of PGC1α as well as the unfolded protein response (UPR) segment of PERK-p-eIF2a pathway activity. Consistent with these findings, electrical pulse stimulation of an in vitro model of chronic exercise (with differentiated C2C12 myoblasts) showed that exogenous TTR protein was internalized and localized in the endoplasmic reticulum, where it disrupted Ca2+ dynamics; this led to decreases in intracellular Ca2+ concentration and downstream pathway activity. TTR-KD may function as an exercise/Ca2+-dependent CaMKII-PGC1α-UPR regulator that upregulates the oxidative myofiber composition of fast-type muscles; it appears to mimic the effect of exercise training on insulin sensitivity-related metabolic improvement and endurance capacity.
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Beibei Wu, Ruojun Qiu, Shuo Wang, Yingzi He, Jing Wang, Zhiye Xu, Xihua Lin, Hong Li, and Fenping Zheng
Jeff S Chueh, Kang-Yung Peng, Vin-Cent Wu, Shuo-Meng Wang, Chieh-Kai Chan, Yung-Ming Chen, Yi-Yu Ke, Chien-Yuan Pan, and Hung-Wei Liao
Somatic mutation in the KCNJ5 gene is a common driver of autonomous aldosterone overproduction in aldosterone-producing adenomas (APA). KCNJ5 mutations contribute to a loss of potassium selectivity, and an inward Na+ current could be detected in cells transfected with mutated KCNJ5. Among 223 unilateral primary aldosteronism (uPA) individuals with a KCNJ5 mutation, we identified 6 adenomas with a KCNJ5 p.Gly387Arg (G387R) mutation, previously unreported in uPA patients. The six uPA patients harboring mutant KCNJ5-G387R were older, had a longer hypertensive history, and had milder elevated preoperative plasma aldosterone levels than those APA patients with more frequently detected KCNJ5 mutations. CYP11B2 immunohistochemical staining was only positive in three adenomas, while the other three had co-existing multiple aldosterone-producing micronodules. The bioinformatics analysis predicted that function of the KCNJ5-G387R mutant channel could be pathological. However, the electrophysiological experiment demonstrated that transfected G387R mutant cells did not have an aberrantly stimulated ion current, with lower CYP11B2 synthesis and aldosterone production, when compared to that of the more frequently detected mutant KCNJ5-L168R transfected cells. In conclusion, mutant KCNJ5-G387R is not a functional KCNJ5 mutation in unilateral PA. Compared with other KCNJ5 mutations, the observed mildly elevated aldosterone expression actually hindered the clinical identification of clinical unilateral PA. The KCNJ5-G387R mutation needs to be distinguished from functional KCNJ5 mutations during genomic analysis in APA evaluation because of its functional silence.