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Sangappa B Chadchan, Vertika Singh, and Ramakrishna Kommagani

The gut microbiome is considered an endocrine organ that can influence distant organs and associated biological pathways. Recent advances suggest that gut microbial homeostasis is essential for reproductive health and that perturbations in the gut microbiota can lead to reproductive pathologies. This review provides an updated overview of the relationship between the gut microbiome and female reproductive diseases. Specifically, we highlight the most recent findings on the gut microbiome in gynecological pathologies including polycystic ovarian syndrome, endometriosis, and endometrial cancer. Most studies revealed associations between altered gut microbial compositions and these reproductive diseases, though few have suggested cause–effect relationships. Future studies should focus on determining the molecular mechanisms underlying associations between gut microbiota and reproductive diseases. Understanding this bidirectional relationship could lead to the development of novel and effective strategies to prevent, diagnose, and treat female reproductive organ-related diseases.