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  • Author: S. P. Bidey x
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D. J. Woods, J. Soden, S. Tomlinson and S. P. Bidey

ABSTRACT

Using the fluorescent pH indicator 2′7′-bis(2-carboxyethyl)-5′-(6′)-carboxyfluorescein to monitor intracellular pH (pHi), we have investigated whether transmembrane Na+/H+ exchange, as measured by experimental changes in pHi under bicarbonate-free incubation conditions, may be involved in the early growth-promoting actions of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) on the rat thyroid cell stain FRTL-5. In initial studies to characterize Na+/H+ exchange in FRTL-5 cell suspensions, the recovery of a resting pHi in acid-loaded cells was shown to be dependent upon the presence of extracellular Na+, was enhanced by the presence of the sodium ionophore monensin and was abolished by amiloride, an antagonist of Na+/H+ antiport activity.

Unlike TSH, which was without effect on the pHi of FRTL-5 cells for up to 15 min after addition, IGF-I (1000 μg/1) caused a rapid and sustained increase within 3 min, which was abolished in medium in which Na+ had been replaced with an iso-osmotic level of choline chloride. The change in pHi in response to IGF-I was mimicked by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA; 100 nmol/1), an activator of thyroid cell proliferation. In the presence of TSH, exposure of cells to IGF-I or PMA had no additional effect on the cytoplasmic alkalinization induced by either of these two agonists alone. However, blockade of transmembrane Na+/H+ exchange with amiloride inhibited both the individual actions of IGF-I and PMA on [methyl-3H]thymidine incorporation, and the synergistic interaction between TSH and IGF-I. These findings are consistent with a differential mode of action of TSH and IGF-I on the early events associated with FRTL-5 cell proliferation, and suggest involvement of an amiloride-sensitive transmembrane Na+/H+ exchange in mediating the early cellular response to the latter. Furthermore, the later actions of PMA, which are also dependent upon early transmembrane Na+/H+ exchange, differ from those of IGF-I with respect to interaction with the growth-promoting actions of TSH.

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A. J. Cowin, J. R. E. Davis and S. P. Bidey

ABSTRACT

The present studies have demonstrated the production of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) by porcine thyroid follicular cells (TFCs) maintained in vitro as subconfluent monolayers, and have confirmed a stimulatory effect of iodide on thyroidal TGF-β1 mRNA and peptide release. RNA extracted from TFCs maintained in the absence of iodide contained a 2·5 kb transcript which hybridized specifically with a cDNA probe for human TGF-β1, and which showed an approximate doubling in intensity in cells exposed to 10 μmol NaI/l. In the presence of the anti-thyroid thionamide drug methimazole (MMI; 1 mmol/l), the action of iodide on TGF-β1 mRNA was attenuated, although MMI alone had no effect on the control level of TGF-β1 mRNA. The TGF-β1 peptide content of TFC-conditioned media (TFC-CM) was assessed using the fetal mink lung cell line Mv1 Lu, in which activated TGF-β1 specifically suppresses trichloroacetic acid-precipitable [methyl-3H]thymidine incorporation. Newly conditioned TFC-CM stimulated [methyl-3H]thymidine incorporation into Mv1Lu cells, but after heat treatment to inactivate growth stimulators and activate the latent TGF-β1 component this medium inhibited [methyl-3H]thymidine incorporation. This inhibitory effect was prevented by immunoadsorption of TFC-CM with a TGF-β1-neutralizing antiserum, confirming the specificity of the inhibitory response. The inhibitory activity of TFC-CM was increased when the TFCs were preincubated with 10 μmol NaI/l, and lost when TFCs were exposed to MMI. In conclusion, TFCs produce TGF-β1 mRNA and TGF-β1 peptide, which are both increased by iodide treatment in vitro. The anti-thyroid effects of MMI may, at least in part, be mediated by a decrease in TFC-derived TGF-β1 production.

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D. J. Woods, J. Soden and S. P. Bidey

ABSTRACT

Using the fluorescent indicators 2′,7′-bis(2-carboxyethyl)-5′-(6′)-carboxyfluorescein and Oxonol V to monitor intracellular pH (pHi) and cell membrane potential respectively, we have investigated the involvement of H+-dependent ATPase and H+-dependent K+ channels in the recovery of the rat thyroid cell strain FRTL-5 from experimentally induced cytosolic acidification and membrane hyperpolarization events. Following exposure of cells to the weak acid sodium butyrate (24mmol/l) under bicarbonate-free incubation conditions, cytoplasmic acidification was maximal after 3 min, attaining a pHi of 6.42. The subsequent recovery of pHi was unimpaired by the absence of extracellular K+, but was reduced in the presence of the Na+ antagonist amiloride (1 mmol/l), recovering by 0.11±0.003 units, compared with 0.27±0.02 units under amiloride-free conditions. In the presence of the H+-dependent ATPase antagonist N,N′-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC), the pHi recovery observed in amiloride-containing, K+-free buffer was abolished.

The recovery of pHi in Na+- and K+-containing buffer was accompanied by hyperpolarization of the cell membrane, the later stage of which was reduced after blockade of K+ channels with BaCl2, implying a major contribution of transmembrane K+ movement to such events. In contrast to its attenuating effect on pHi recovery, DCC was ineffective in reducing butyrate-dependent membrane hyperpolarization, suggesting that H+-dependent ATPase may not be a major contributory factor to this event. However, when K+ channels were blocked by addition of BaCl2, addition of DCC abolished the butyrate-induced membrane depolarization. These findings are consistent with the presence of two independent hyperpolarizing transport processes in the FRTL-5 cell membrane which appear to involve (i) a H+-dependent ATPase, activated in response to cytosolic acidification, and allowing partial recovery of pHi in the absence of extracellular Na+ and HCO3 , and (ii) H+-dependent K+ channels which, while contributing to membrane hyperpolarization, may not play a major role in the normal maintenance of pHi.

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A. M. Wood, G. Warhurst, S. P. Bidey, J. Soden, R. Taylor and W. R. Robertson

ABSTRACT

pH is maintained in cells by plasma membrane exchange mechanisms. In the absence of HCO3− ions, FRTL-5 cells regulate intracellular pH (pHi) by an Na+/H+ antiport but HCO3−-dependent exchangers cannot operate. We have investigated pHi regulation (by microfluorimetry and the pH sensitive dye 2′,7′-bis(2-carboxyethyl)-5(6′)-carboxy-fluorescein) in small groups (five to six cells) of FRTL-5 thyroid cell monolayers held in kREBS—Ringer buffer (pH 7·4) with or without HCO3− ions. The exchangers were investigated with inhibitors (amiloride or its derivative dimethylamiloride for the Na+/H+ antiporter and the stilbene derivative disodium 4,4′-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2′-disulphonic acid (DIDS) for HCO3 −-dependent mechanisms), ionic substitution and by NH4 +/NH3 (10mm) acid loading. Basal pHi was lower in the presence (7·3±0·058, mean±s.d., n= 14) than in the absence (7·59±0·078, n=10) of HCO3 ions. In HCO3 −-free media, cells recovered from acid load by 0·34±0·04 pH units in the first 2 min and finally reached a pHi of 7·35±0·06. This recovery was Na+-dependent and blocked by dimethylamiloride during the 15 min following intracellular acidification. In HCO3 -containing media, cells recovered from an acid load at a similar rate, but reached 99 ± 10% (n = 9) of the baseline pH; this recovery was also dependent on Na+ ions. Moreover, although dimethylamiloride and DIDS reduced the rate of recovery to 0·06±0·02 and 0·18±0·04 pH units respectively during the 2-min period, the cells returned to the basal pHi within 15 min. Removal of Na+ from HCO3 -containing media acidified the cells (ΔpH=–0·82±0·05, n=10) within 40 min; this acidification was partially blocked by either amiloride or DIDS. Removal of Cl alkalinized the cells (ΔpH=+0·51 ± 0·06, n=10) after 40 min, and this alkalinization was totally prevented by DIDS. Furthermore, in the absence of Na+ and presence of amiloride, alkalinization was still seen on the removal of Cl, albeit at a diminished rate (i.e. ΔpH = +0·25±0·05, n=8) after 40 min. In conclusion, FRTL-5 cells maintain pHi by two Na+-dependent exchangers, one sensitive to amiloride, the other to DIDS, and a Na+-independent, Cl/HCO3− mechanism.