Specific interactions among biomolecules drive virtually all cellular functions and underlie phenotypic complexity and diversity. Biomolecules are not isolated particles, but are elements of integrated interaction networks, and play their roles through specific interactions. Simultaneous emergence or loss of multiple interacting partners is unlikely. If one of the interacting partners is lost, then what are the evolutionary consequences for the retained partner? Taking advantages of the availability of the large number of mammalian genome sequences and knowledge of phylogenetic relationships of the species, we examined the evolutionary fate of the motilin (MLN) hormone gene, after the pseudogenization of its specific receptor, MLN receptor (MLNR), on the rodent lineage. We speculate that the MLNR gene became a pseudogene before the divergence of the squirrel and other rodents about 75 mya. The evolutionary consequences for the MLN gene were diverse. While an intact open reading frame for the MLN gene, which appears functional, was preserved in the kangaroo rat, the MLN gene became inactivated independently on the lineages leading to the guinea pig and the common ancestor of the mouse and rat. Gain and loss of specific interactions among biomolecules through the birth and death of genes for biomolecules point to a general evolutionary dynamic: gene birth and death are widespread phenomena in genome evolution, at the genetic level; thus, once mutations arise, a stepwise process of elaboration and optimization ensues, which gradually integrates and orders mutations into a coherent pattern.
Jing He, David M Irwin, Rui Chen and Ya-Ping Zhang
Kun Chen, Ji-Dan Zhou, Feng Zhang, Fang Zhang, Rui-Rui Zhang, Meng-Si Zhan, Xiao-Yin Tang, Bing Deng, Ming-Gang Lei and Yuan-Zhu Xiong
G protein-coupled receptor 120 (GPR120), an adipogenic receptor critical for the differentiation and maturation of adipocytes, plays an important role in controlling obesity in both humans and rodents and, thus, is an attractive target of obesity treatment studies. However, the mechanisms that regulate the expression of porcine GPR1 20 remain unclear. In this study, electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) techniques were used to analyze and identify the binding of C/EBPβ (transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta) to the GPR120 promoter. C/EBPβ overexpression and RNA interference studies showed that C/EBPβ regulated GPR120 promoter activity and endogenous GPR120 expression. The binding site of C/EBPβ in the GPR120 promoter region from −101 to −87 was identified by promoter deletion analysis and site-directed mutagenesis. Overexpression of C/EBPβ increased endogenous GPR120 expression in pig kidney cells (PK). Furthermore, when endogenous C/EBPβ was knocked down, GPR120 mRNA and protein levels were decreased. The stimulatory effect of C/EBPβ on GPR120 transcription and its ability to bind the transcription factor-binding site were confirmed by luciferase, ChIP, and EMSA. Moreover, the mRNA and protein expression levels of C/EBPβ were induced by high fat diet feeding. Taken together, it can be concluded that C/EBPβ plays a vital role in regulating GPR120 transcription and suggests HFD-feeding induces GPR120 transcription by influencing C/EBPβ expression.
Guoying Chang, Rui Yang, Yanan Cao, Aifang Nie, Xuefan Gu and Huiwen Zhang
The Sidt2 global knockout mouse (Sidt2 −/−) has impaired insulin secretion. The aim of this study was to assess the role of SIDT2 protein in glucose-induced insulin secretion in primary cultured mouse β-cells. The major metabolic and electrophysiological steps of glucose-induced insulin secretion of primary cultured β-cells from Sidt2 −/− mice were investigated. The β-cells from Sidt2 −/− mice had normal NAD(P)H responses and KATP and KV currents. However, they exhibited a lower [Ca2+]i peak height when stimulated with 20mM glucose compared with those from WT mice. Furthermore, it took a longer time for the [Ca2+]i of β-cell from Sidt2 −/− mice to reach the peak. Pretreatment with ryanodine or 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB) did not change [Ca2+]i the response pattern to glucose in Sidt2 −/− cells. Extraordinarily, pretreatment with bafilomycin A1(Baf-A1) led to a comparable [Ca2+]i increase pattern between these two groups, suggesting that calcium traffic from the intracellular acidic compartment is defective in Sidt2 −/− β-cells. Bath-mediated application of 50nM nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) normalized the [Ca2+]i response of Sidt2 −/− β-cells. Finally, glucose-induced CD38 expression increased to a comparable level between Sidt2 −/− and WT islets, suggesting that Sidt2 −/− islets generated NAADP normally. We conclude that Sidt2 is involved in NAADP-mediated release of calcium from insulin secretory granules and thus regulates insulin secretion.
Lai Jin, Qichun Zhang, Rui Guo, Lina Wang, Juejin Wang, Rong Wan, Rongjian Zhang, Youhua Xu and Shengnan Li
Urocortin (Ucn), a corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)-related neuropeptide binding both CRF type 1 receptor (CRFR1) and CRFR2, has recently been found in prostate cancer. However, no report has yet been known to elucidate the roles of Ucn in prostate cancer via the two receptors. In this study, the expression of both CRFR1 and CRFR2 in the mouse prostate cancer cell line RM-1 were detected and cellular apoptosis was monitored in the presence of CRF or Ucn2, the CRFR1- and CRFR2-selective agonist respectively. CRF promoted apoptosis while Ucn2 exerted the opposite effect. CRF reduced Bcl-2 expression, induced Bax expression, and hyperpolarized the mitochondrial membrane potential to activate caspase-9. On the contrary, Ucn2 increased Bcl-2 expression and decreased Bax expression, in which phosphorylation of Akt and cyclic AMP response element-binding (CREB) was involved. Pretreatment with phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase/Akt inhibitor (LY-294002) prior to Ucn2 led to downregulation of CREB phosphorylation and hence reduced Bcl-2 expression. These effects of CRF and Ucn2 were abolished by antalarmin (Anta) and antisauvagine-30, the CRFR1- and CRFR2-selective antagonist respectively. In LNCaP cell line, similar effects on cell apoptosis by CRF and Ucn2 were observed. In summary, our results demonstrated CRFR1 and CRFR2 expression in prostate cancer and indicated the opposite apoptotic roles of the two different CRFRs. These data may contribute to uncovering the pathophysiological function of endogenous Ucn in prostate tumorigenesis and progression.
Ying Li, Chun Ye, Peng Shi, Xiao-Ju Zou, Rui Xiao, Yuan-Ying Gong and Ya-Ping Zhang
The growth hormone (GH) gene family represents an erratic and complex evolutionary pattern, involving many evolutionary events, such as multiple gene duplications, positive selection, the birth-and-death process and gene conversions. In the present study, we cloned and sequenced GH-like genes from three species of New World monkeys (NWM). Phylogenetic analysis strongly suggest monophyly for NWM GH-like genes with respect to those of Old World monkeys (OWM) and hominoids, indicating that independent gene duplications have occurred in NWM GH-like genes. There are three main clusters of genes in putatively functional NWM GH-like genes, according to our gene tree. Comparison of the ratios of nonsynonymous and synonymous substitutions revealed that these three clusters of genes evolved under different kinds of selective pressures. Detailed analysis of the evolution of pseudogenes showed that the evolutionary pattern of this gene family in platyrrhines is in agreement with the so-called birth-and-death process.
Feng Wang, Xianfeng Zhang, Jiqiu Wang, Maopei Chen, Nengguang Fan, Qinyun Ma, Ruixin Liu, Rui Wang, Xiaoying Li, Mingyao Liu and Guang Ning
The circadian clock plays an important role in the liver by regulating the major aspects of energy metabolism. Currently, it is assumed that the circadian clock regulates metabolism mostly by regulating the expression of liver enzymes at the transcriptional level, but the underlying mechanism is not well understood. In this study, we showed that L gr4 homozygous mutant (L gr4 m/m) mice showed alteration in the rhythms of the respiratory exchange ratio. We further detected impaired plasma triglyceride rhythms in L gr4 m/m mice. Although no significant changes in plasma cholesterol rhythms were observed in the L gr 4 m/m mice, their cholesterol levels were obviously lower. This phenotype was further confirmed in the context of ob/ob mice, in which lack of LGR4 dampened circadian rhythms of triglyceride. We next demonstrated that Lgr 4 expression exhibited circadian rhythms in the liver tissue and primary hepatocytes in mice, but we did not detect changes in the expression levels or circadian rhythms of classic clock genes, such as C lock, Bmal1 (Arntl), P ers, Rev-erbs, and C rys, in L gr 4 m/m mice compared with their littermates. Among the genes related to the lipid metabolism, we found that the diurnal expression pattern of the M ttp gene, which plays an important role in the regulation of plasma lipid levels, was impaired in L gr 4 m/m mice and primary L gr 4 m/m hepatocytes. Taken together, our results demonstrate that LGR4 plays an important role in the regulation of plasma lipid rhythms, partially through regulating the expression of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein. These data provide a possible link between the peripheral circadian clock and lipid metabolism.
Rui Wang, Jie Hong, Ruixin Liu, Maopei Chen, Min Xu, Wiqiong Gu, Yifei Zhang, Qinyun Ma, Feng Wang, Juan Shi, Jiqiu Wang, Weiqing Wang and Guang Ning
WNT/β-catenin signalling is involved in regulating adipogenesis, and its dysregulation occurs in obesity. Secreted frizzled-related protein 5 (SFRP5) is a WNT protein inhibitor; however, its role in adipogenesis and obesity is controversial. In this study, we observed that SFRP5 mRNA levels were increased in the fat tissues of obese humans and mice. Sfrp5 expression was gradually induced during differentiation of white and brown adipocytes and was highly increased in mature adipocytes rather than preadipocytes. However, the effects of the exogenous overexpression of Sfrp5 indicated that Sfrp5 may not directly regulate adipogenesis in vitro under the conditions studied. Moreover, SFRP5 did not inhibit the canonical WNT/β-catenin signalling pathway in preadipocytes. Subsequently, we measured the levels of circulating SFRP5 in obese patients and non-obese subjects using ELISA and did not find any significant difference. Collectively, these findings indicate that Sfrp5 represents a candidate for a mature adipocyte marker gene. Our data provide new evidence concerning the role of SFRP5 in adipogenesis of white and brown adipocytes and obesity.