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Qinyun Ma, Jianxia Fan, Jiqiu Wang, Shuai Yang, Qing Cong, Rui Wang, Qianqian Lv, Ruixin Liu and Guang Ning

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) presents with moderate inflammation, insulin resistance and impaired glucose uptake, which may result from increased maternal fat mass and increased circulation of placental hormones and adipokines. In this study, we set out to test whether the surge in chorionic gonadotrophin (CG) secretion is a cause of inflammation and impaired insulin sensitivity in GDM. We first found that LH/chorionic gonadotrophin receptors (CG/LHR) were expressed at low levels in insulin-sensitive murine 3T3-L1 adipocytes and murine C2C12 myocytes. CG treatment not only directly reduced insulin-responsive gene expression, including that of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4), but also impaired insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 cells. Moreover, CG treatment increased the expression of the proinflammatory cytokine monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP1) and upregulated nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) activity in 3T3-L1 cells. Clinically, pregnant women who had higher CG levels and elevated MCP1 developed GDM. Above all, apart from prepregnancy BMI and MCP1 level, CG level was associated with abnormal glucose tolerance. In summary, our findings confirmed that higher CG levels in pregnancy possibly played a role in GDM development partly by impairing the functions of insulin, such those involved in as glucose uptake, while promoting inflammation in adipocyte.

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Qianqian Lu, Yuying Yang, Sheng Jia, Shaoqiang Zhao, Bin Gu, Peng Lu, Yang He, Ruixin Liu, Jiqiu Wang, Guang Ning and Qinyun Ma

Appetite is tightly controlled by neural and hormonal signals in animals. In general, steroid receptor coactivator 1 (SRC1) enhances steroid hormone signalling in energy balance and serves as a common coactivator of several steroid receptors, such as oestrogen and glucocorticoid receptors. However, the key roles of SRC1 in energy balance remain largely unknown. We first confirmed that SRC1 is abundantly expressed in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC), which is a critical centre for regulating feeding and energy balance; it is further co-localised with agouti-related protein and proopiomelanocortin neurons in the arcuate nucleus. Interestingly, local SRC1 expression changes with the transition between sufficiency and deficiency of food supply. To identify its direct role in appetite regulation, we repressed SRC1 expression in the hypothalamic ARC using lentivirus shRNA and found that SRC1 deficiency significantly promoted food intake and body weight gain, particularly in mice fed with a high-fat diet. We also found the activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signalling pathway due to SRC1 deficiency. Thus, our results suggest that SRC1 in the ARC regulates appetite and body weight and that AMPK signalling is involved in this process. We believe that our study results have important implications for recognising the overlapping and integrating effects of several steroid hormones/receptors on accurate appetite regulation in future studies.

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Rui Wang, Jie Hong, Ruixin Liu, Maopei Chen, Min Xu, Wiqiong Gu, Yifei Zhang, Qinyun Ma, Feng Wang, Juan Shi, Jiqiu Wang, Weiqing Wang and Guang Ning

WNT/β-catenin signalling is involved in regulating adipogenesis, and its dysregulation occurs in obesity. Secreted frizzled-related protein 5 (SFRP5) is a WNT protein inhibitor; however, its role in adipogenesis and obesity is controversial. In this study, we observed that SFRP5 mRNA levels were increased in the fat tissues of obese humans and mice. Sfrp5 expression was gradually induced during differentiation of white and brown adipocytes and was highly increased in mature adipocytes rather than preadipocytes. However, the effects of the exogenous overexpression of Sfrp5 indicated that Sfrp5 may not directly regulate adipogenesis in vitro under the conditions studied. Moreover, SFRP5 did not inhibit the canonical WNT/β-catenin signalling pathway in preadipocytes. Subsequently, we measured the levels of circulating SFRP5 in obese patients and non-obese subjects using ELISA and did not find any significant difference. Collectively, these findings indicate that Sfrp5 represents a candidate for a mature adipocyte marker gene. Our data provide new evidence concerning the role of SFRP5 in adipogenesis of white and brown adipocytes and obesity.

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Feng Wang, Xianfeng Zhang, Jiqiu Wang, Maopei Chen, Nengguang Fan, Qinyun Ma, Ruixin Liu, Rui Wang, Xiaoying Li, Mingyao Liu and Guang Ning

The circadian clock plays an important role in the liver by regulating the major aspects of energy metabolism. Currently, it is assumed that the circadian clock regulates metabolism mostly by regulating the expression of liver enzymes at the transcriptional level, but the underlying mechanism is not well understood. In this study, we showed that L gr4 homozygous mutant (L gr4 m/m) mice showed alteration in the rhythms of the respiratory exchange ratio. We further detected impaired plasma triglyceride rhythms in L gr4 m/m mice. Although no significant changes in plasma cholesterol rhythms were observed in the L gr 4 m/m mice, their cholesterol levels were obviously lower. This phenotype was further confirmed in the context of ob/ob mice, in which lack of LGR4 dampened circadian rhythms of triglyceride. We next demonstrated that Lgr 4 expression exhibited circadian rhythms in the liver tissue and primary hepatocytes in mice, but we did not detect changes in the expression levels or circadian rhythms of classic clock genes, such as C lock, Bmal1 (Arntl), P ers, Rev-erbs, and C rys, in L gr 4 m/m mice compared with their littermates. Among the genes related to the lipid metabolism, we found that the diurnal expression pattern of the M ttp gene, which plays an important role in the regulation of plasma lipid levels, was impaired in L gr 4 m/m mice and primary L gr 4 m/m hepatocytes. Taken together, our results demonstrate that LGR4 plays an important role in the regulation of plasma lipid rhythms, partially through regulating the expression of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein. These data provide a possible link between the peripheral circadian clock and lipid metabolism.