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H Shigeta, W Zuo, N Yang, R DiAugustine, and CT Teng

Estrogen receptor-related orphan receptor alpha 1 is a member of the steroid/thyroid nuclear receptor superfamily. We have previously cloned the human estrogen receptor-related orphan receptor alpha 1 (hERR alpha 1) cDNA and demonstrated that it enhances estrogen responsiveness of the lactoferrin gene promoter in transfected human endometrial carcinoma cells. In the present study, we used the hERR alpha 1 cDNA as a probe and isolated the mouse homologue of ERR alpha 1 from the cDNA libraries of the brain and kidney. Sequence comparison between human and mouse ERR alpha 1 (mERR alpha 1) revealed that the homologies are 89% in nucleotides and 97% in amino acids. By electrophoresis mobility shift assay, we showed that the glutathione S-transferase-mERR alpha 1 fusion protein produced in a bacterial system bound to the human ERR alpha 1 DNA-binding element. Mouse uterine nuclear extract also interacted with this DNA element and produced three complexes in the mobility shift assay, one of which was supershifted by the hERR alpha 1 antiserum. A 2.2 kbp transcript was detected by Northern analysis in all adult mouse tissues tested; however, large variations in the amount of ERR alpha 1 mRNA were found among them. Multiple immunoreactive forms of mouse ERR alpha 1 were detected by Western analysis in non-reproductive tissues, whereas a major 53 kDa protein was found in reproductive tissues such as uterus, cervix and vagina. Diethylstilbestrol (DES) stimulated the expression of ERR alpha 1 mRNA in the uterus of 19-day-old mouse. We showed that DES and estradiol, but not progesterone or dexamethasone, enhanced the level of immunoreactive ERR alpha 1 in the mouse uterus. These results demonstrated that the ERR alpha 1 is an estrogen-responsive gene in the mouse uterus and provides a model system with which to study the biological roles of this nuclear orphan receptor.

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M Nakamura, S Morimoto, Q Yang, T Hisamatsu, N Hanai, Y Nakamura, I Mori, and K Kakudo

Receptor activity modifying proteins (RAMPs) act as receptor modulators that determine the ligand specificity of receptors for the calcitonin (CT) family. The purpose of this study was to analyze the expression of RAMPs in osteoclast-like cells using the laser capture microdissection (LCM) technique. Mouse bone marrow and spleen cells were co-cultured on a film designed for LCM. After 10 days, 250 osteoclast-like cells were captured using the LCM system. Total RNA from these cells was used to synthesize cDNA and RT-PCR analysis was performed. Osteoclast-like cells expressed CT receptor (CTR), CT receptor-like receptor (CRLR) and RAMP2, but did not express RAMP1 or RAMP3. These results indicated (1) that a pure population of osteoclast-like cells can be prepared by LCM and gene expression of this population can be analyzed by RT-PCR and (2) that RT-PCR shows that osteoclast-like cells express RAMP2, CTR and CRLR, suggesting the potential for adrenomedullin binding to osteoclast-like cells. This is the first report that osteoclast-like cells express RAMP2.