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Henrik Fagman and Mikael Nilsson

The thyroid develops from the foregut endoderm. Yet uncharacterized inductive signals specify endoderm progenitors to a thyroid cell fate that assembles in the pharyngeal floor from which the primordium buds and migrates to the final position of the gland. The morphogenetic process is regulated by both cell-autonomous (e.g. activated by NKX2-1, FOXE1, PAX8, and HHEX) and mesoderm-derived (e.g. mediated by TBX1 and fibroblast growth factors) mechanisms acting in concert to promote growth and survival of progenitor cells. The developmental role of TSH is limited to thyroid differentiation set to work after the gross anatomy of the gland is already sculptured. This review summarizes recent advances on the molecular genetics of thyroid morphogenesis put into context of endoderm developmental traits and highlights established and novel mechanisms of thyroid dysgenesis of potential relevance to congenital hypothyroidism in man.