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Anna Maria Di Blasio, Michele Vignali, and Davide Gentilini

Endocannabinoids are endogenous ligands of cannabinoid, vanilloid and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors that activate multiple signal transduction pathways. Together with their receptor and the enzymes responsible for their synthesis and degradation, these compounds constitute the endocannabinoid system that has been recently shown to play, in humans, an important role in modulating several central and peripheral functions including reproduction. Given the relevance of the system, drugs that are able to interfere with the activity of endocannabinoids are currently considered as candidates for the treatment of various diseases. In this review, we will summarise the current knowledge regarding the effects of endocannabinoids in female reproductive organs. In particular, we will focus on some newly reported mechanisms that can affect endometrial plasticity both in physiological and in pathological conditions.